Amazon Web Services (AWS), the cloud computing service of Amazon.com, provides compute, storage, database, and other services through its data centers in over 20 countries and more than 100 locations around the world. This mission-critical segment generates $88.6 billion of annualized run-rate revenue and is growing rapidly year-over-year. To understand the company’s portfolio in greater detail, Dgtl Infra answers the questions: How Many Data Centers Does Amazon Web Services (AWS) Have? and Where Are Amazon Web Services (AWS) Data Centers Located?
In total, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates over 125 physical data centers in various global locations, with these facilities comprising over 33 million square feet. These data centers are or will be arranged into 36 regions – AWS’ term for a physical location where it clusters data centers – that are deployed within a highly available, fault tolerant, and scalable environment.
How Many Data Centers Does Amazon Web Services (AWS) Have?
Amazon Web Services (AWS) currently has 32 regions in operation and a further 4 under development, meaning that the company will have a total of 36 regions available by the end of 2024. Within each AWS region are 3 to 6 isolated, and physically separate locations, known as availability zones, which have independent power, cooling, and physical security, and are connected to each other with a redundant, low-latency, private fiber-optic network.
Presently, Amazon Web Services (AWS) has 102 availability zones in operation and a further 12 under development, meaning that the company will have a total of 114 availability zones existing by the end of 2024.
AWS Regions and Availability Zones
In contrast to other cloud service providers, AWS operates every region with multiple availability zones, whereas its peers often define a region as a single data center. AWS’ peers, or competitors, include Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, Oracle Cloud, and Alibaba Cloud.
AWS also has over 550 Points of Presence (PoPs) worldwide, signifying an extensive network of locations equipped with infrastructure, such as servers and networking equipment. This network ensures closer service delivery to end users, thereby enhancing performance and reliability. Furthermore, AWS operates 13 Regional Edge Caches that work in tandem with the PoPs to optimize content delivery and reduce latency.
Where Are Amazon Web Services (AWS) Data Centers Located?
While AWS does not disclose the exact addresses of its data centers, the company does identify its regions and availability zones. Below is a summary of Amazon Web Services’ – operating and future – 36 regions and 114 availability zones throughout the United States, AWS GovCloud (US), Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and Africa.
In the United States, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates 4 regions and 16 availability zones. Specifically, AWS operates facilities in the following markets: Columbus, Ohio; multiple locations throughout Morrow County and Umatilla County in the Eastern part of Oregon; the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California; and several locations across Loudoun County, Prince William County, and Fairfax County in Northern Virginia.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), US West (Northern California), and US East (Northern Virginia).
United States – Regions and Availability Zones
|US East (Ohio)||us-east-2||3||Columbus||Ohio||2016|
|US West (Oregon)||us-west-2||4||Eastern||Oregon||2011|
|US West (N. California)||us-west-1||3||San Francisco||California||2009|
|US East (N. Virginia)||us-east-1||6||Multiple||Virginia||2006|
From 2011 to 2021, AWS invested $51.9 billion in both capital and operating expenditures into data centers located in Northern Virginia. This 10-year investment in the construction and operation of data centers also contributed $8.2 billion in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to the economy of Virginia.
In 2022, AWS paid $334 million in business personal property taxes related to its data centers located in Loudoun County, Prince William County, and Fairfax County, Virginia.
In the future, AWS plans to invest $35 billion by 2040 to establish multiple data center campuses in Virginia. This investment is anticipated to create over 1,000 jobs and will reinforce Virginia’s position as the world’s largest data center market. Various locations within the state are currently under evaluation for these developments, including new sites in King George County, Louisa County, Spotsylvania County, and Stafford County.
AWS GovCloud (US)
AWS GovCloud (US) are regions designed to host sensitive data, regulated IT workloads, and address stringent U.S. government security and compliance requirements. Particularly, AWS GovCloud (US) addresses compliance in the cloud by offering network, data, and virtual machines that are isolated from all standard AWS regions.
AWS’ GovCloud infrastructure helps government customers and their partners meet compliance and regulatory requirements, including Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP), International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), Department of Defense (DoD) Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide (SRG), Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS), Criminal Justice Information Systems (CJIS) Security Policy, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
Through the AWS GovCloud (US) service, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates 2 regions and 6 availability zones. Presently, AWS is available in the following markets: Columbus, Ohio and the Eastern part of Oregon.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: AWS GovCloud (US-East) and AWS GovCloud (US-West).
AWS GovCloud (US) – Regions and Availability Zones
|AWS GovCloud (US-East)||us-gov-east-1||3||Columbus||Ohio||2018|
|AWS GovCloud (US-West)||us-gov-west-1||3||Eastern||Oregon||2011|
In the Americas, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates or is planning 3 regions and 9 availability zones. Particularly, AWS is available or will be opening in the following markets: Montreal, Canada; Calgary, Canada; and São Paulo, Brazil.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: Canada (Central) and South America (São Paulo). While AWS will be opening its next Americas data center region, known as Canada (West), in Calgary, Canada, in late 2023 or early 2024. Importantly, the Canada (West) region will have three availability zones and will reduce latency for end users in Western Canada.
Americas – Regions and Availability Zones
|South America (São Paulo)||sa-east-1||3||São Paulo||Brazil||2011|
AWS plans to invest up to $21 billion Canadian dollars ($16 billion USD), by 2037, in both its existing Montreal region and in its upcoming Calgary region. Of this total, AWS will invest up to $4.3 billion Canadian dollars ($3.3 billion USD), by 2037, in its new region in Calgary. This investment includes both capital and operating expenditures, such as imports of equipment, and in-country spending on construction labor, materials, and utilities.
Overall, AWS’ investment in Calgary alone will support 963 full-time equivalent jobs in the Canadian economy.
In Europe, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates 8 regions and 24 availability zones. Specifically, AWS is available in the following markets: Frankfurt, Germany; Dublin, Ireland; London, United Kingdom; Milan, Italy; Paris, France; Aragón, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; and Zurich, Switzerland.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: Europe (Frankfurt), Europe (Ireland), Europe (London), Europe (Milan), Europe (Paris), Europe (Spain), Europe (Stockholm), and Europe (Zurich).
Europe – Regions and Availability Zones
The United Kingdom is one of AWS’ most important regions in Europe. As such, in March 2022, AWS announced its plans to invest more than £1.8 billion ($2.2 billion), over the next two years, to build and operate multiple data centers in the United Kingdom. In turn, AWS noted that it will “more than double” its total investment in the UK to-date.
Furthermore, AWS estimates that it is generating £8.7 billion ($10.5 billion) in economic value for businesses across the UK, which is equivalent to 0.4% of GDP.
In Asia Pacific, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates or is planning 15 regions and 47 availability zones. Presently, AWS is available or will be opening in the following markets: Auckland, New Zealand; Bangkok, Thailand; Hong Kong, SAR; Hyderabad, India; Jakarta, Indonesia; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Melbourne, Australia; Mumbai, India; Osaka, Japan; Seoul, South Korea; Singapore; Sydney, Australia; Tokyo, Japan; Beijing, China; and Changsha (Ningxia), China.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: Asia Pacific (Hong Kong), Asia Pacific (Hyderabad), Asia Pacific (Jakarta), Asia Pacific (Melbourne), Asia Pacific (Mumbai), Asia Pacific (Osaka), Asia Pacific (Seoul), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Sydney), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), China (Beijing), and China (Ningxia).
In addition, AWS is establishing its next three Asia Pacific data center regions, known as Asia Pacific (Auckland), Asia Pacific (Bangkok), and Asia Pacific (Malaysia), in Auckland, New Zealand; Bangkok, Thailand; and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, respectively.
Asia Pacific – Regions and Availability Zones
|Asia Pacific (Auckland)||ap-southeast-5||3||Auckland||New Zealand||2024|
|Asia Pacific (Bangkok)||ap-southeast-6||3||Bangkok||Thailand||2024|
|Asia Pacific (Hong Kong)||ap-east-1||3||Hong Kong||SAR||2019|
|Asia Pacific (Hyderabad)||ap-south-2||3||Hyderabad||India||2022|
|Asia Pacific (Jakarta)||ap-southeast-3||3||Jakarta||Indonesia||2021|
|Asia Pacific (Malaysia)||ap-southeast-7||3||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||2024|
|Asia Pacific (Melbourne)||ap-southeast-4||3||Melbourne||Australia||2023|
|Asia Pacific (Mumbai)||ap-south-1||3||Mumbai||India||2016|
|Asia Pacific (Osaka)||ap-northeast-3||3||Osaka||Japan||2021|
|Asia Pacific (Seoul)||ap-northeast-2||4||Seoul||South Korea||2016|
|Asia Pacific (Singapore)||ap-southeast-1||3||Singapore||Singapore||2010|
|Asia Pacific (Sydney)||ap-southeast-2||3||Sydney||Australia||2012|
|Asia Pacific (Tokyo)||ap-northeast-1||4||Tokyo||Japan||2011|
Additional details on these new Asia Pacific regions are as follows:
Asia Pacific (Auckland) – New Zealand
In New Zealand, AWS announced that it will open its Asia Pacific (Auckland) region in 2024 with three availability zones. Once live, AWS’ Asia Pacific (Auckland) region will be its first in New Zealand, giving customers with data residency requirements the ability to run workloads and store data that must remain in-country.
In establishing and operating its AWS Region in Auckland, the company is planning to invest up to 7.5 billion NZD ($4.7 billion USD) over the next 15 years, including both capital and operating expenditures. Furthermore, AWS’ investment will support an additional 1,000 full-time equivalent jobs in New Zealand’s economy over the next 15 years.
Asia Pacific (Bangkok) – Thailand
AWS is planning to launch a cloud region in Thailand named Asia Pacific (Bangkok), which will have three availability zones. As a demonstration of its commitment to the area, AWS has outlined plans to invest over $5 billion (approximately 190 billion baht) in Thailand within the next 15 years.
This upcoming region aims to serve developers, startups, enterprises, government, education, and nonprofit organizations, allowing them to run applications and store data in Thailand.
Asia Pacific (Malaysia) – Kuala Lumpur
AWS plans to launch a cloud region in Malaysia with three availability zones. Alongside this development, AWS intends to invest $6 billion (equivalent to MYR 25.5 billion) in Malaysia by the year 2037. This region will allow customers to run applications and store data in Malaysia, thus serving end users with lower latency.
Middle East and Africa
In the Middle East and Africa, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates 4 regions and 12 availability zones. Particularly, AWS is available in the following markets: Cape Town, South Africa; Manama, Bahrain; Tel Aviv, Israel; and Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
Within these markets, Amazon Web Services (AWS) operates data centers in the following regions: Africa (Cape Town), Middle East (Bahrain), Israel (Tel Aviv), and Middle East (UAE).
Middle East and Africa – Regions and Availability Zones
|Africa (Cape Town)||af-south-1||3||Cape Town||South Africa||2020|
|Middle East (Bahrain)||me-south-1||3||Manama||Bahrain||2019|
|Israel (Tel Aviv)||il-central-1||3||Tel Aviv||Israel||2023|
|Middle East (UAE)||me-central-1||3||Dubai||UAE||2022|
Notably, in April 2021, the government of Israel selected AWS as the primary cloud service provider for its $1.2 billion Nimbus Project. As part of this effort, government ministries and subsidiaries in Israel will use cloud computing services and will provide new digital services for Israel’s citizens.
Advantages of Cloud Computing
Amazon Web Services (AWS) identifies six advantages of cloud computing: variable costs, economies of scale, capacity certainty, speed and agility, the avoidance of operating and maintaining data centers, and global availability.
These benefits can be delivered through its extensive portfolio of data center locations as follows:
- Fixed vs. Variable Costs: Instead of investing in data centers and servers prior to knowing how they are going to be used, customers can pay only when they consume computing resources, and pay only for how much they consume
- Economies of Scale: By using cloud computing, customers can achieve a lower variable cost than they would be able to achieve on their own – because usage from hundreds of thousands of customers is aggregated in the cloud. Therefore, Amazon Web Services (AWS) facilitates greater economies of scale, using its portfolio of data center locations, which translates into lower pay as-you-go prices for its customers
- Capacity Certainty: Customers can eliminate guessing on their infrastructure capacity needs. Specifically, capacity decisions made prior to deploying an application, can often lead to either having expensive idle resources or dealing with limited capacity. Instead, with AWS, cloud computing capacity can be provisioned as-and-when needed
- Speed and Agility: New IT resources can be provisioned in a cloud computing environment with only a few clicks. Therefore, customers can reduce the time to make those resources available to developers from weeks, to just minutes
- Operating and Maintaining Data Centers: Cloud computing enables customers to avoid the complexities of racking, stacking, and powering servers, and relying on third party data centers. Furthermore, they can sidestep the ongoing maintenance of their data centers
- Global: Applications can be deployed in multiple regions around the world with just a few clicks. In turn, this enables applications to have lower latency and provides a better experience for end users