Google Cloud Platform (GCP), the cloud computing service of Alphabet Inc, provides compute, storage, and networking services through its data centers in 25 countries and nearly 40 locations around the world. Growth in Google Cloud regions and the company’s core products and platforms, such as Gmail, Google Drive, Google Maps, Google Photos, Google Play, Search, and YouTube, are fueling the company’s need for more data center capacity.
In total, Google operates or is developing 35 data centers around the world. These data centers support Google’s current and planned 49 cloud regions – a physical location where it clusters data centers – that are designed to be highly available, fault-tolerant, and concurrently maintainable.
Alphabet Inc’s Google Cloud unit earns revenue from the fees it charges for its infrastructure, platform, and other services. For the latest quarter, Google Cloud generated $8.0 billion in revenue, an increase of 28% year-over-year. Therefore, on an annualized basis, Google Cloud produces over $32 billion of revenue.
Dgtl Infra reviews Google Cloud’s regions, availability zones, and data centers which support this burgeoning cloud computing business, with a focus on the company’s existing infrastructure locations and where future deployments will be built.
How Many Data Centers Does Google Cloud Have?
Google Cloud currently has 39 regions in operation and a further 10 under development, meaning that the company will have a total of 49 regions available by the end of 2024. Within each Google Cloud region are 3 to 4 deployment areas that map to clusters of data centers with distinct physical infrastructure (i.e., power, cooling, and networking), known by Google as zones, and commonly referred to by other cloud service providers as availability zones.
Presently, Google Cloud has 118 zones in operation and a further 30 under development, meaning that the company will have a total of 148 zones existing by the end of 2024.
Google Cloud Regions and Zones
Below is an illustration of the layout of Google Cloud’s regions and zones. For example, europe-west2 is a Google Cloud region located in London, United Kingdom, which has 3 zones, known as europe-west2-a, europe-west2-b, and europe-west2-c.
Google Cloud customers can deploy resources and workloads across multiple zones to help protect against unexpected failures, which cannot always be done through a single, private data center.
Where Are Google Cloud’s Regions and Zones Located?
Google Cloud’s regions and zones (also known as availability zones) are physical locations where the company clusters data centers around the world. Below is a summary of Google Cloud’s – operating and future – 49 regions and 148 availability zones throughout the United States, Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and Africa.
In the United States, Google Cloud operates 9 regions and 28 availability zones. Specifically, Google operates facilities in the following markets: Council Bluffs, Iowa; Moncks Corner, South Carolina; Ashburn, Virginia; Columbus, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; The Dalles, Oregon; Los Angeles, California; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Las Vegas, Nevada.
Within these markets, Google Cloud operates data centers in the following regions: Iowa (us-central1), South Carolina (us-east1), Northern Virginia (us-east4), Columbus (us-east5), Dallas (us-south1), Oregon (us-west1), Los Angeles (us-west2), Salt Lake City (us-west3), and Las Vegas (us-west4).
United States – Regions and Availability Zones
|South Carolina||us-east1||3||Moncks Corner||South Carolina||2015|
|Los Angeles||us-west2||3||Los Angeles||California||2018|
|Salt Lake City||us-west3||3||Salt Lake City||Utah||2020|
|Las Vegas||us-west4||3||Las Vegas||Nevada||2020|
In the Americas, Google Cloud operates or is planning 5 regions and 15 availability zones. Particularly, Google Cloud is available or will be opening in the following markets: Montréal (Québec), Canada; Toronto (Ontario), Canada; São Paulo (Osasco), Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Querétaro, Mexico.
Within these locations, Google Cloud operates data centers in the following regions: Montréal (northamerica-northeast1), Toronto (northamerica-northeast2), São Paulo (southamerica-east1), and Santiago (southamerica-west1). While Google will be opening its next Americas data center region in Querétaro, Mexico, in 2023 or 2024.
Americas – Regions and Availability Zones
|São Paulo||southamerica-east1||3||São Paulo||Brazil||2017|
In Europe, Google Cloud operates or is planning 16 regions and 48 availability zones. Presently, Google Cloud is available or will be opening in the following markets: Warsaw, Poland; Hamina, Finland; Madrid, Spain; St. Ghislain, Belgium; London, United Kingdom; Frankfurt, Germany; Eemshaven, Netherlands; Zürich, Switzerland; Milan, Italy; Paris, France; Berlin (including Brandenburg), Germany; Turin, Italy; Vienna, Austria; Athens, Greece; Oslo, Norway; and Stockholm, Sweden.
Within these markets, Google Cloud operates data centers in the following regions: Warsaw (europe-central2); Finland (europe-north1); Madrid (europe-southwest1); Belgium (europe-west1); London (europe-west2); Frankfurt (europe-west3); Netherlands (europe-west4); Zürich (europe-west6); Milan (europe-west8); Paris (europe-west9); Berlin (europe-west10); and Turin (europe-west12).
Additionally, Google Cloud is establishing its next four Europe data center regions in Vienna, Austria; Athens, Greece; Oslo, Norway; and Stockholm, Sweden.
Europe – Regions and Availability Zones
In Asia Pacific, Google Cloud operates or is planning 14 regions and 42 availability zones. Specifically, Google Cloud is available or will be opening in the following markets: Changhua County, Taiwan; Hong Kong, SAR; Tokyo, Japan; Osaka, Japan; Seoul, South Korea; Mumbai, India; Delhi, India; Jurong West, Singapore; Jakarta, Indonesia; Sydney, Australia; Melbourne, Australia; Auckland, New Zealand; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Bangkok, Thailand.
Within these locations, Google Cloud operates data centers in the following regions: Taiwan (asia-east1), Hong Kong (asia-east2), Tokyo (asia-northeast1), Osaka (asia-northeast2), Seoul (asia-northeast3), Mumbai (asia-south1), Delhi (asia-south2), Singapore (asia-southeast1), Jakarta (asia-southeast2), Sydney (australia-southeast1), and Melbourne (australia-southeast2).
In addition, Google Cloud is establishing its next three Asia Pacific data center regions in Auckland, New Zealand; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Bangkok, Thailand.
Asia Pacific – Regions and Availability Zones
|Hong Kong||asia-east2||3||Hong Kong||SAR||2018|
|New Zealand||TBD*||3||Auckland||New Zealand||Future|
Middle East and Africa
In the Middle East and Africa, Google Cloud operates or is planning 5 regions and 15 availability zones. Particularly, Google Cloud is available or will be opening in the following markets: Tel Aviv, Israel; Doha, Qatar; Dammam, Saudi Arabia; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Within these markets, Google Cloud operates data centers in the following regions: Tel Aviv (me-west1), Doha (me-central1), and Dammam (me-central2). Additionally, Google Cloud is establishing its next two Middle East and Africa data center regions in Johannesburg, South Africa and Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Middle East and Africa – Regions and Availability Zones
|Tel Aviv||me-west1||3||Tel Aviv||Israel||2022|
Where Are Google’s Data Centers Located?
In total, Google has 35 owned data centers either in operation or under development across more than 10 countries throughout the world. Google owns and operates these data centers to keep its products running and the internet functioning 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Google Owned Data Center Locations
Google operates or is building 23 data centers in 15 states across the U.S., including Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
United States – Google Data Centers
Below is a summary of Google’s United States data center locations, including each of their addresses:
|1430 Veterans Memorial Highway||Council Bluffs||Pottawattamie||Iowa|
|10410 Bunge Avenue||Council Bluffs||Pottawattamie||Iowa|
|Parvin Road and Arlington Avenue||Kansas City||Jackson||Missouri|
|North 56th Street and Interstate 80||Lincoln||Lancaster||Nebraska|
|14706 Schram Road||Papillion||Sarpy||Nebraska|
|Blair High Road and State Street||Union||Cass||Nebraska|
|104 Whiley Road||Lancaster||Fairfield||Ohio|
|5076 South High Street||Lockbourne||Franklin||Ohio|
|1101 Beech Road SW||New Albany||Franklin||Ohio|
|48809 AL Highway 277||Bridgeport||Jackson||Alabama|
|300 Riverside Parkway||Lithia Springs||Douglas||Georgia|
|708 Lynhaven Drive||Lenoir||Caldwell||North Carolina|
|1669 Garrott Avenue||Moncks Corner||Berkeley||South Carolina|
|100 Solar Way||Clarksville||Montgomery||Tennessee|
|42575 Arcola Boulevard||Sterling||Loudoun||Virginia|
|20491 Goose Landing Lane||Leesburg||Loudoun||Virginia|
|Sossaman Road and Elliot Road||Mesa||Maricopa||Arizona|
|4581 Webb Street||Pryor||Mayes||Oklahoma|
|3800 Railport Parkway||Midlothian||Ellis||Texas|
|156 Austin Boulevard||Red Oak||Ellis||Texas|
|540 & 560 W Warm Springs Road||Henderson||Clark||Nevada|
|7400 USA Parkway||Sparks||Storey||Nevada|
|4200 Columbia Road||The Dalles||Wasco||Oregon|
Facility-level investment and employment details for each of Google’s United States data center locations, grouped by region, are as follows:
Midwest – United States – Google Data Centers
- Council Bluffs: Google has invested a total of $5 billion into its two data center campuses in Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, creating jobs for over 900 people on-site
- Papillion: Google is investing a total of $600 million into its campus in Papillion, Sarpy County, Nebraska. Overall, Google has more than 120 full-time employees in Nebraska
- New Albany: Google is investing a total of $600 million into its campus in New Albany, Franklin County, Ohio. Overall, Google has more than 210 full-time employees in Ohio
Southeast – United States – Google Data Centers
- Bridgeport: Google has invested a total of $600 million into its data center campus in Bridgeport, Jackson County, Alabama, creating jobs for over 100 people on-site and more than 230 in the state
- Lithia Springs: Google has invested over $1.2 billion into its campus in Lithia Springs, Douglas County, Georgia, creating jobs for over 500 people in the state
- Lenoir: Google has invested a total of $1.2 billion into its campus in Lenoir, Caldwell County, North Carolina, creating jobs for more than 250 people on-site and over 340 in the state
- Moncks Corner: Google has invested a total of $2.4 billion into its campus in Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, South Carolina, creating jobs for more than 400 people on-site and over 750 in the state
- Clarksville: Google is investing a total of $600 million into its campus in Clarksville, Montgomery County, Tennessee, which will employ more than 70 personnel once fully operational
- Sterling and Leesburg: Google has invested a total of $1.2 billion into its two campuses in Sterling and Leesburg, which are both part of Loudoun County, Virginia. Overall, Google has more than 480 full-time employees in Virginia
Southwest – United States – Google Data Centers
- Pryor: Google has invested a total of $4.4 billion into its data center campus in Pryor, Mayes County, Oklahoma, creating jobs for more than 800 people on-site
- Midlothian: Google is investing a total of $600 million into its campus in Midlothian, Ellis County, Texas. Overall, Google has more than 2,400 full-time employees in Texas
West – United States – Google Data Centers
- Henderson: Google is investing a total of $1.2 billion into its data center campus in Henderson, Clark County, Nevada. Together with Google’s data center campus in Sparks, the company plans to invest $1.8 billion in Nevada and has created jobs for more than 200 people in the state
- Sparks: Google has invested a total of $600 million into its campus in Sparks, Storey County, Nevada
- The Dalles: Google has invested a total of $1.8 billion into its campus in The Dalles, Wasco County, Oregon, creating jobs for over 200 people on-site
Google operates one data center and is building a second facility in the Americas. These facilities are located in the city of Beauharnois, Québec, Canada – which is located just outside of Montréal – and the municipality of Quilicura, near Santiago, Chile. Google estimates that its long-term investment in its data center campus in Quilicura, Chile, will exceed $290 million.
Below is a summary of Google’s Americas data center locations, including each of their addresses:
|Chemin de la Rivière-Saint-Louis N||Beauharnois||Montréal||Canada|
|El Molino 2130||Quilicura||Santiago||Chile|
Google operates or is building 7 data centers in 5 countries across Europe, namely Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and the Netherlands.
Europe – Google Data Centers
Below is a summary of Google’s Europe data center locations, including each of their addresses:
|Address||Location||Metro / Region||Country|
|Ecopôle Business Park||Farciennes||Wallonia||Belgium|
|Rue de Ghlin 100, 7331||St. Ghislain / Mons||Wallonia||Belgium|
|Prinsessens Kvartér 10, 7000||Fredericia||Jutland||Denmark|
|Ensontie 1, 49420||Hamina||Kymenlaakso||Finland|
|22 Baldonnel Road||Aungierstown||Dublin||Ireland|
|Oostpolder 4, 9979 XT||Eemshaven||Groningen||Netherlands|
|Tussenweg 12, 1775 RK||Middenmeer||Amsterdam||Netherlands|
Facility-level investment and employment details for each of Google’s Europe data center locations are as follows:
- Belgium: Google has invested a total of nearly €3 billion into its data center campus near the towns of St. Ghislain and Mons, in Wallonia, Belgium
- Denmark: Google has invested a total of €600 million into its campus in Fredericia, Jutland, Denmark, creating jobs for around 150 people on-site
- Finland: Google has invested a total of €1.2 billion into its campus in Hamina, Kymenlaakso, Finland
- Ireland: Google has invested a total of €500 million into its campus in Aungierstown, Dublin, Ireland, which is specifically located in the Grange Castle Business Park South
- Netherlands: Google has invested a total of €2.5 billion into its two campuses in Eemshaven and Middenmeer, in the Netherlands, which together have created jobs for around 600 people on-site
Google operates 3 data centers in 3 countries across Asia Pacific, namely Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan.
Below is a summary of Google’s Asia Pacific data center locations, including each of their addresses:
|2 Chome-4 Kagurominami||Inzai||Chiba Prefecture||Japan|
|2 Jurong West Street 23||Jurong West||West Region||Singapore|
|No. 85, Zhangbin West 2nd Road||Xianxi Township||Changhua County||Taiwan|
Facility-level investment and employment details for each of Google’s Asia Pacific data center locations are as follows:
- Japan: Google plans to invest a total of $730 million into infrastructure in Japan, which includes its data center campus in Inzai, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
- Singapore: Google has invested a total of $850 million into its campus in Jurong West, Singapore
- Taiwan: Google has invested a total of $600 million into its campus in Xianxi Township, Changhua County, Taiwan
How Does Google Select a Data Center Location?
Google selects a data center location using a number of site selection criteria, including energy infrastructure, proximity to Google’s end users, available workforce, available land, exposure to natural disasters, fiber connectivity, and sustainable energy.
Below are further details on Google’s seven main criteria groups for selecting a data center location:
- Energy Infrastructure: Google’s multi-megawatt data center deployments require abundant and low-cost power, as well as the appropriate energy infrastructure such as overhead power transmission lines
- Proximity to End Users: Google builds data centers in close proximity to large population clusters to ensure that its various services – such as Google Cloud, Gmail, Search, and YouTube – can respond quickly to end user demands
- Workforce: Available information technology and engineering workforce, as well as personnel for roles in operations, maintenance, and security, are all critical for running data centers
- Land: Google requires available land parcels, comprising tens of acres – and often 100+ acres – in order to build-out each of its massive data center locations
- Natural Disasters: Areas that are prone to earthquakes, extreme weather events (e.g., hurricanes and tornadoes), or floods are not good candidates to build data centers that house thousands of servers
- Fiber Connectivity: Latency limits and distance to nearby points of presence (PoPs), or network access points (NAPs), is a major consideration
- Sustainable Energy: Since power is a high ongoing cost and impacts the environment, Google seeks reliable and efficient carbon-free energy options to enable sustainable operations
Once a data center location is chosen and land is acquired, then Google can commence data center construction. Overall, Google’s data center construction projects are generally multi-year developments with multiple phases, where the company acquires suitable land and buildings, constructs buildings, and secures and installs information technology infrastructure, such as servers.