Globally, the top 100 subsea cable systems enable robust international communications by transmitting data underwater between continents and countries across the world. These crucial submarine cable networks, totaling over 800,000 miles or 1.3 million kilometers, include vital Trans-Atlantic, Trans-Pacific, and Intra-Asia routes, connecting billions of individuals across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, Australia, and Africa.

As a whole, top subsea cable systems currently in-service and owned by large internet companies like Google and Meta Platforms include Grace Hopper, Dunant, and MAREA. Similarly, key systems like SEA-ME-WE 5 and Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1) are owned by consortiums of telecommunications companies.

Dgtl Infra has categorized the world’s 100 largest subsea cable systems into six groups based on their geographic operating regions and several measurable factors. These factors include: their design capacity in terabits per second (Tbps), the number of fiber pairs, the length in miles and kilometers, and the extent to which each system serves as a backbone for global internet connectivity. Subsequently, we delve deeper into each of the top 100 subsea cables, involving both in-service and under development systems, providing details on their ready for service (RFS) dates, key geographic landing points, and specific owners.

Table of Contents

Top 100 Subsea Cable Systems in the World

The top 100 subsea cable systems in the world are categorized into the following six geographic segments: Trans-Atlantic, Trans-Pacific, Intra-Asia, U.S.-Latin America, Europe-Asia, and Africa.

Trans-Atlantic Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
1Anjana20244,4257,121
2Grace Hopper20224,4687,191
3Amitié / AEC-320234,2206,792
4Dunant20213,9776,400
5MAREA20184,1016,600
6HAVFRUE/AEC-220204,7367,622
7America Europe Connect 1 (AEC-1)20163,4405,536
8EllaLink20215,6679,120
9Apollo20038,07813,000
10EXA Express20152,8584,600
11TGN-Atlantic20018,07813,000
12EXA North and South20017,58112,200
13FLAG Atlantic-1 (FA-1)20019,01014,500
14Atlantic Crossing-2 (AC-2) / Yellow20003,9776,400
15Atlantic Crossing-1 (AC-1)19988,69914,000

Below is a detailed overview of each of the top Trans-Atlantic subsea cables: Anjana, Grace Hopper, Amitié/AEC-3, Dunant, MAREA, HAVFRUE/AEC-2, America Europe Connect 1 (AEC-1), EllaLink, Apollo, EXA Express, TGN-Atlantic, EXA North and South, FLAG Atlantic-1 (FA-1), Atlantic Crossing-2 (AC-2)/Yellow, and Atlantic Crossing-1 (AC-1).

Anjana

The Anjana subsea cable, currently under development, is set to be ready for service (RFS) in 2024. The planned length of this cable is substantial, stretching 4,425 miles (7,121 kilometers). It is designed to have an impressive capacity of 480 terabits per second (Tbps), enabled by its 24 fiber pairs. The Anjana subsea cable will connect two major landing points: Santander, Spain and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina in the United States. The subsea cable is owned and operated by Meta Platforms.

Anjana Subsea Cable Map Myrtle Beach South Carolina Santander Spain

READ MORE: Anjana Subsea Cable – Meta Unveils New 4,425-Mile Route

Grace Hopper

The Grace Hopper subsea cable, owned by Google, is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2022. Spanning a length of 4,468 miles (7,191 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 352 Tbps, facilitated by 16 fiber pairs. The cable’s landing points are strategically located in Bilbao, Spain; Bude, England; and Bellport, New York in the United States.

Grace Hopper Subsea Cable System Map

Amitié / AEC-3

Amitié, also known as AEC-3, is a subsea cable that is currently under development. It is expected to be ready for service (RFS) during 2023. Spanning a total length of 4,220 miles (6,792 kilometers), it possesses a design capacity of 320 Tbps and is structured with 16 fiber pairs. The cable has landing points at Le Porge in France, Bude in England, and Lynn, Massachusetts in the United States. The subsea cable is jointly owned by Aqua Comms, Meta Platforms, Microsoft, Orange, and Vodafone.

Amitié AEC-3 Subsea Cable System Map

Dunant

The Dunant subsea cable, which has been in-service since 2021, spans a significant distance of 3,977 miles (6,400 kilometers) from Saint-Hilaire-de-Riez, France to Virginia Beach, Virginia in the United States. Owned by Google, the cable features 12 fiber pairs and boasts a remarkable design capacity of 250 Tbps, enabling high-speed data transfer across the Atlantic.

Dunant Subsea Cable System Map

READ MORE: Telxius Joins Trans-Atlantic Dunant and MAREA Subsea Cables

MAREA

The MAREA subsea cable is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2018. Spanning 4,101 miles (6,600 kilometers) in length, the cable has a design capacity of 210 Tbps. MAREA comprises eight fiber pairs and extends between two landing points, specifically Sopelana (Bilbao), Spain, and Virginia Beach, Virginia, in the United States. The cable is jointly owned by Meta Platforms, Microsoft, and Telxius.

MAREA Subsea Cable System Map

HAVFRUE/AEC-2

The HAVFRUE/AEC-2 subsea cable, currently in-service since 2020, spans a length of 4,736 miles (7,622 kilometers). It boasts a design capacity of 108 Tbps, facilitated by six fiber pairs. The subsea cable has landing points at Blaabjerg in Denmark, Lecanvey in Ireland, Kristiansand in Norway, and Wall Township, New Jersey in the United States. Ownership of this robust submarine infrastructure is shared among Aqua Comms, Bulk Infrastructure, Google, and Meta Platforms.

HAVFRUE-AEC-2 Subsea Cable System Map

America Europe Connect 1 (AEC-1)

America Europe Connect 1 (AEC-1), a subsea cable currently in-service, has been operational since 2016. It spans an impressive 3,440 miles (5,536 kilometers) in length, boasting a design capacity of 78 Tbps through its six fiber pairs. This cable establishes connectivity between two landing points: Killala in Ireland and Shirley, New York in the United States. The AEC-1 subsea cable is owned and operated by Aqua Comms.

America Europe Connect 1 AEC-1 Subsea Cable System Map

EllaLink

EllaLink is a subsea cable that is currently in-service and has been RFS since 2021. Stretching a length of 5,667 miles (9,120 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 72 Tbps and consists of four fiber pairs. The cable features landing points in various locations, including Fortaleza and São Paulo in Brazil, Praia in Cape Verde, Casablanca in Morocco, as well as Funchal and Sines in Portugal. The EllaLink subsea cable is owned by Marguerite Fund II.

EllaLink Subsea Cable System Map

Apollo

The Apollo subsea cable, owned by Vodafone, has been in-service since 2003. This trans-Atlantic undersea cable spans a considerable length of 8,078 miles (13,000 kilometers). It is designed with a substantial capacity of 64 Tbps, utilizing four fiber pairs. The cable provides connectivity via landing points in four locations: Lannion in France, Bude in England, as well as Manasquan, New Jersey and Shirley, New York – both in the United States.

Apollo Subsea Cable System Map

EXA Express

EXA Express is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2015. This cable, with a total length of 2,858 miles (4,600 kilometers), boasts a design capacity of 53 Tbps, supported by six fiber pairs. The cable lands at three points: Halifax, Nova Scotia in Canada, Cork in Ireland, and Brean in England. The EXA Express subsea cable is owned and operated by EXA Infrastructure, which is controlled by I Squared Capital.

EXA Express North and South Subsea Cable System Map

TGN-Atlantic

The TGN-Atlantic, a subsea cable owned by Tata Communications, has been in-service since 2001. Spanning a length of 8,078 miles (13,000 kilometers), it has a robust design capacity of 50 Tbps facilitated by four fiber pairs. The cable’s landing points are strategically located in Highbridge, England, and Wall Township, New Jersey, in the United States.

TGN-Atlantic Subsea Cable System Map

EXA North and South

The EXA North and South subsea cable, which is currently in-service, has been operational since 2001. With a total length of 7,581 miles (12,200 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 25 Tbps, facilitated through 4 fiber pairs. Its landing points span several locations, including Halifax, Nova Scotia in Canada; Dublin in Ireland; Coleraine in Northern Ireland; Southport in England; and Lynn, Massachusetts in the United States. The EXA North and South subsea cable is owned and operated by EXA Infrastructure, which is controlled by I Squared Capital.

EXA Express North and South Subsea Cable System Map

FLAG Atlantic-1 (FA-1)

The FLAG Atlantic-1 (FA-1) subsea cable is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2001. This substantial cable spans an impressive length of 9,010 miles (14,500 kilometers). With a design capacity of 24 Tbps, the FA-1 subsea cable utilizes six fiber pairs to ensure robust data transmission.

FLAG Atlantic (FA-1) Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) Subsea Cable Map

The cable has four significant landing points: Plérin in France, Porthcurno / Skewjack in England, and both Island Park and Northport, New York in the United States. Ownership of the FA-1 lies with Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) , which is controlled by 3i Infrastructure.

Atlantic Crossing-2 (AC-2) / Yellow

The Atlantic Crossing-2 (AC-2), also known as Yellow, is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2000. Stretching a length of 3,977 miles (6,400 kilometers), it offers a design capacity of 8.6 Tbps, with four fiber pairs supporting this underwater infrastructure. The cable lands at two points: Bude in England and Bellport, New York in the United States. AC-2 is currently owned and operated by Lumen Technologies.

Atlantic Crossing-2 AC-2 Yellow Subsea Cable System Map Labelled

Atlantic Crossing-1 (AC-1)

The Atlantic Crossing-1 (AC-1) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since its RFS in 1998. Spanning a total length of 8,699 miles (14,000 kilometers), it has a design capacity of 5.2 Tbps, with a structure featuring four fiber pairs. AC-1 has four key landing points: Sylt in Germany, Beverwijk in the Netherlands, Whitesands Bay, Wales in the United Kingdom, and Brookhaven, New York in the United States. The cable system is owned and operated by Lumen Technologies.

Atlantic Crossing-1 AC-1 Subsea Cable System Map Labelled

Trans-Pacific Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
16JUNO20247,27611,710
17Taiwan-Philippines-United States (TPU)20258,37013,470
18Asia Connect Cable-1 (ACC-1)202511,18518,000
19Hawaiki Nui202516,15626,000
20Topaz20234,3507,000
21Echo202510,67817,184
22Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN)20227,95412,800
23Bifrost202410,22816,460
24TGN-Pacific200213,85722,300
25Southern Cross NEXT20229,84315,840
26New Cross Pacific (NCP)20188,46213,618
27Hawaiki20189,32115,000
28FASTER20167,22611,629
29JUPITER20219,04514,557
30Southeast Asia-United States (SEA-US)20179,01014,500
31Asia-America Gateway (AAG)200912,42720,000
32Trans-Pacific Express (TPE)200811,16517,968
33Southern Cross Cable Network (SCCN)200018,95230,500
34Japan-U.S. Cable Network (JUS)200113,04921,000
35Pacific Crossing-1 (PC-1)199913,04921,000
36Unity / EAC-Pacific20105,9789,620
37Telstra Endeavour20085,6709,125

The following provides an overview of each of the top Trans-Pacific subsea cables: JUNO, Taiwan-Philippines-United States (TPU), Asia Connect Cable-1 (ACC-1), Hawaiki Nui, Topaz, Echo, Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), Bifrost, TGN-Pacific, Southern Cross NEXT, New Cross Pacific (NCP), Hawaiki, FASTER, JUPITER, Southeast Asia-United States (SEA-US), Asia-America Gateway (AAG), Trans-Pacific Express (TPE), Southern Cross Cable Network (SCCN), Japan-U.S. Cable Network (JUS), Pacific Crossing-1 (PC-1), Unity / EAC-Pacific, and Telstra Endeavour.

JUNO

The JUNO subsea cable, currently under development, is anticipated to be ready for service (RFS) in 2024. Spanning a considerable distance of 7,276 miles (11,710 kilometers), the cable is designed with a capacity of 350 Tbps, leveraging 20 fiber pairs to deliver its capabilities.

JUNO Subsea Cable System Map

The JUNO subsea cable is set to connect to multiple landing points, including Minamiboso and Shima in Japan, as well as Grover Beach, California, and Harbour Pointe, Washington, in the United States. The ownership of the JUNO cable is held by a small group of companies, namely NTT, Mitsui & Co., and JA Mitsui Leasing (JAML).

Taiwan-Philippines-United States (TPU)

The Taiwan-Philippines-United States (TPU) subsea cable is currently under development, with Google being the sole owner. This ambitious project is set to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. The cable spans a significant length of 8,370 miles (13,470 kilometers), boasting a design capacity of 260 Tbps and 20 fiber pairs. The TPU subsea cable will have landing points at Tanguisson Point in Guam, Claveria in the Philippines, Dawu in Taiwan, and Eureka, California in the United States.

TPU Subsea Cable Route Map

READ MORE: Google’s TPU Subsea Cable Revealed Amid U.S.-China Tensions

Asia Connect Cable-1 (ACC-1)

The Asia Connect Cable-1 (ACC-1) is a subsea cable currently under development, with an expected ready for service (RFS) date in 2025. Extending over a distance of 11,185 miles (18,000 kilometers), the cable is designed with a capacity of 256 Tbps and incorporates 16 fiber pairs.

Asia Connect Cable-1 ACC-1 Subsea Cable System Map

The landing points of the ACC-1 include Darwin in Australia; Alupang in Guam; Batam, Jakarta, Makassar, and Manado in Indonesia; Davao in the Philippines; Singapore; Dili in Timor-Leste; and Hermosa Beach, California in the United States. The cable is owned and operated by Indosat Ooredoo Hutchison (IOH) and Inligo Networks.

Hawaiki Nui

The Hawaiki Nui subsea cable, currently under development, is expected to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. Spanning a significant 16,156 miles (26,000 kilometers) in length, this immense cable will deliver a design capacity of 240 Tbps through its 12 fiber pairs.

Hawaiki Nui Subsea Cable System Map

The comprehensive network is designed to interconnect various major locations, with landing points in Brisbane, Darwin, Melbourne, and Sydney in Australia; Batam and Jakarta in Indonesia; Christchurch, Dunedin, and Invercargill in New Zealand; Singapore; Kapolei and Kawaihae, Hawaii in the United States, and Los Angeles, California in the United States. The Hawaiki Nui subsea cable is owned by BW Digital.

Topaz

The Topaz subsea cable, which is currently under development, is expected to be ready for service (RFS) in 2023. This extensive cable spans 4,350 miles (7,000 kilometers), featuring a design capacity of 240 Tbps facilitated through 16 fiber pairs. The cable will establish connections at four distinct landing points: Port Alberni and Vancouver, both in British Columbia, Canada, and Shima and Takahagi in Japan. The subsea cable is owned and operated by Google.

Google Cloud Topaz Subsea Cable Map

READ MORE: Google Cloud to Construct 16 Fiber Pair Topaz Subsea Cable

Echo

The Echo subsea cable, currently under development, is anticipated to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. With a total length of 10,678 miles (17,184 kilometers), the cable is designed to have a capacity of 144 Tbps through its 12 fiber pairs. It will feature landing points in Agat and Piti in Guam, Tanjung Pakis in Indonesia, Ngeremlengui in Palau, Changi North in Singapore, and Eureka, California in the United States. The cable’s ownership is evenly divided, with Google and Meta Platforms each holding a 50% stake.

Echo Subsea Cable System Map

Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN)

The Pacific Light Cable Network (PLCN), which is now in-service, became RFS in 2022. This subsea cable extends for a length of 7,954 miles (12,800 kilometers) and boasts a design capacity of 144 Tbps, containing six fiber pairs. The PLCN has landing points in four locations: Baler and San Fernando in the Philippines, Toucheng in Taiwan, and El Segundo, California in the United States. Ownership of this subsea cable is shared among Google, Meta Platforms, and China Soft Power Technology Holdings Limited.

Pacific Light Cable Network PLCN Subsea Cable System Map

Bifrost

The Bifrost subsea cable, currently under development, is set to be ready for service (RFS) in 2024. Spanning a length of 10,228 miles (16,460 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 125 Tbps with 12 fiber pairs. The cable is scheduled to have landing points in diverse global locations, namely Alupang, Guam; Jakarta, Balikpapan, and Manado in Indonesia; Davao City, Philippines; Tuas, Singapore; Rosarito, Mexico; Grover Beach, California, and Winema Road Beach, Oregon, in the United States. The ownership of the Bifrost subsea cable is shared between Keppel Telecommunications & Transportation (T&T), Meta Platforms, and Telin.

Bifrost Subsea Cable System Map

TGN-Pacific

The TGN-Pacific subsea cable, owned by Tata Communications, has been in-service since 2002. The cable stretches a considerable distance, spanning 13,857 miles (22,300 kilometers) across the Pacific. It has a robust design capacity of nearly 77 Tbps and includes 8 fiber pairs. The TGN-Pacific subsea cable has various strategic landing points, including Piti in Guam; Emi and Toyohashi in Japan; as well as Hillsboro, Oregon, and Los Angeles, California, in the United States.

TGN-Pacific Subsea Cable System Map

Southern Cross NEXT

The Southern Cross NEXT is a subsea cable that is currently in-service, since its RFS date in 2022. Spanning a distance of 9,843 miles (15,840 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 72 Tbps, facilitated by its four fiber pairs. The cable system lands at several points, which include Alexandria (Sydney) in Australia, Savusavu and Suva in Fiji, Kiritimati in Kiribati, Takapuna in New Zealand, Nukunonu in Tokelau, and Los Angeles, California in the United States. It is jointly owned by Spark New Zealand, Singtel, Telstra, and Verizon.

Southern Cross NEXT Subsea Cable System Map

New Cross Pacific (NCP)

The New Cross Pacific (NCP) subsea cable is currently in-service after becoming RFS in 2018. Spanning a length of 8,462 miles (13,618 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 70 Tbps and consists of seven fiber pairs. The cable’s strategic landing points include Chongming, Lingang, and Nanhui in China, Maruyama in Japan, Busan in South Korea, Toucheng in Taiwan, and Pacific City, Oregon in the United States. The ownership of this expansive undersea infrastructure is shared among several entities, namely China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, KT Corporation, Microsoft, and SoftBank.

New Cross Pacific NCP Subsea Cable System Map

Hawaiki

The Hawaiki subsea cable, currently in-service, became RFS in 2018. It extends a considerable length of 9,321 miles (15,000 kilometers), offering a design capacity of 67 Tbps, made possible through the utilization of 4 fiber pairs. This extensive cable system boasts several landing points, including Sydney in Australia, Mangawhai in New Zealand, Pago Pago in American Samoa, Pacific City, Oregon in the United States, and Kapolei, Hawaii in the United States. The Hawaiki subsea cable is owned by BW Digital.

Hawaiki Subsea Cable System Map

READ MORE: Hawaiki Submarine Cable Sold for $350m to BW Digital

FASTER

The FASTER subsea cable, currently in-service, has been operational since 2016. Stretching a total length of 7,226 miles (11,629 kilometers), this undersea infrastructure is designed with a capacity of 60 Tbps. The cable system, composed of 6 fiber pairs, is strategically routed with landing points at Chikura and Shima in Japan, Tanshui (New Taipei City) in Taiwan, and Bandon, Oregon in the United States. The FASTER subsea cable is co-owned by several major companies, namely China Mobile, China Telecom, Google, KDDI, Singtel, and TIME dotCom.

FASTER Subsea Cable System Map

JUPITER

The JUPITER subsea cable, which has been in-service since 2021, spans a total length of 9,045 miles (14,557 kilometers). Its design capacity stands at a substantial 60 Tbps, delivered across five fiber pairs. This expansive network extends from Maruyama and Shima in Japan, to Daet in the Philippines, and traverses the Pacific Ocean to Cloverdale, Oregon and Hermosa Beach, California in the United States. Ownership of the JUPITER cable is shared between several key companies in the communications industry, including Amazon Web Services (AWS), Meta Platforms, NTT, PCCW Global, PLDT, and SoftBank.

JUPITER Subsea Cable System Map

Southeast Asia-United States (SEA-US)

The Southeast Asia-United States (SEA-US) subsea cable, which is currently in-service, was RFS in 2017. Spanning a length of 9,010 miles (14,500 kilometers), this cable has a design capacity of 35 Tbps and consists of two fiber pairs.

Southeast Asia-United States SEA-US Subsea Cable System Map

The SEA-US cable reaches to various landing points including Davao City, Philippines; Kauditan, Indonesia; Piti, Guam; Magachgil, Micronesia; Ngeremlengui, Palau; as well as Hermosa Beach, California and Makaha, Hawaii in the United States. The ownership of this cable is shared among multiple parties, namely Globe Telecom, GTA Teleguam, Hawaiian Telcom, RTI Cables, and Telin.

Asia-America Gateway (AAG)

The Asia-America Gateway (AAG) is an in-service subsea cable that has been operational since 2009. Spanning a substantial length of 12,427 miles (20,000 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 28.8 Tbps with three fiber pairs.

Asia-America Gateway AAG Subsea Cable System Map

The AAG has an extensive range of landing points, including Tungku in Brunei, Lantau Island in Hong Kong, Tanguisson Point in Guam, Mersing in Malaysia, La Union in the Philippines, Changi North in Singapore, Sriracha in Thailand, Keawaula, Hawaii in the United States, San Luis Obispo, California in the United States, and Vung Tàu in Vietnam.

Ownership of the Asia-America Gateway (AAG) subsea cable is shared among a broad consortium of telecom companies, which include AT&T, BayanTel, Bharti Airtel, BT, Eastern Telecom, Ezecom, Indosat Ooredoo Hutchison (IOH), National Telecom Public Company, PLDT, Saigon Postel Corporation, Spark New Zealand, Starhub, Telekom Malaysia, Telkom Indonesia, Telstra, Unified National Networks (UNN), Viettel, and VNPT International.

Trans-Pacific Express (TPE)

The Trans-Pacific Express (TPE) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2008. Spanning a length of 11,165 miles (17,968 kilometers), the TPE boasts a design capacity of 25.6 Tbps supported by its four fiber pairs. The cable has landing points in Chongming and Qingdao, China; Maruyama, Japan; Geoje, South Korea; Tanshui, Taiwan; and Nedonna Beach, Oregon in the United States. The Trans-Pacific Express (TPE) subsea cable is jointly owned by AT&T, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, KT Corporation, NTT, and Verizon.

Trans-Pacific Express TPE Subsea Cable System Map

Southern Cross Cable Network (SCCN)

The Southern Cross Cable Network (SCCN) is a subsea cable system that has been in-service since 2000. It spans a total length of 18,952 miles (30,500 kilometers), with a design capacity of 22 Tbps facilitated through three fiber pairs. The network connects several landing points including Alexandria (Sydney) and Brookvale in Australia; Suva in Fiji; Takapuna and Whenuapai in New Zealand; Hillsboro in Oregon, Kahe Point and Spencer Beach in Hawaii, and Morro Bay in California, United States. The SCCN subsea cable is co-owned by Spark New Zealand, Singtel, Telstra, and Verizon.

Southern Cross Cable Network SCCN Subsea Cable System Map

Japan-U.S. Cable Network (JUS)

The Japan-U.S. Cable Network (JUS) is an active subsea cable system that was ready for service (RFS) in 2001. The cable stretches over a distance of 13,049 miles (21,000 kilometers) and possesses a design capacity of 21.6 Tbps, achieved through its 4 fiber pairs. This submarine cable network serves as a bridge between various landing points which include Kitaibaraki, Maruyama, and Shima in Japan, along with Makaha in Hawaii, and Manchester and Morro Bay in California, United States.

Japan-U.S. Cable Network JUS Subsea Cable System Map

The Japan-U.S. Cable Network (JUS) is owned by a consortium of telecommunications companies including AT&T, BT, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, HKBN (Hong Kong Broadband Network), KDDI, KT Corporation, LG Uplus, Lumen Technologies, NTT, Orange, PCCW Global, PLDT, SK Telecom, Singtel, SoftBank, Starhub, T-Mobile, Tata Communications, Telekom Malaysia, Telstra, Verizon, and Vodafone.

Pacific Crossing-1 (PC-1)

The Pacific Crossing-1 (PC-1), a subsea cable currently in-service, was RFS in 1999. Spanning a total length of 13,049 miles (21,000 kilometers), the PC-1 boasts a design capacity of 8.4 Tbps and is composed of four fiber pairs. The cable has landing points at Ajigaura and Shima in Japan, as well as Grover Beach in California and Harbour Pointe in Washington, United States. NTT, a Japanese telecommunications company, is the owner of the PC-1 subsea cable.

Pacific Crossing-1 PC-1 Subsea Cable System Map

Unity / EAC-Pacific

The Unity/EAC-Pacific subsea cable, currently in-service, has been operational since 2010. With a length spanning 5,978 miles (9,620 kilometers), this cable system boasts a design capacity of 4.5 Tbps and features 8 fiber pairs. The cable’s landing points are strategically located in Chikura, Japan and Redondo Beach, California in the United States. The Unity/EAC-Pacific subsea cable is owned by a consortium of companies including Bharti Airtel, Google, KDDI, Singtel, TIME dotCom, and Telstra.

Unity - EAC-Pacific Subsea Cable System Map

Telstra Endeavour

The Telstra Endeavour, a subsea cable that’s been in-service since 2008, stretches a total of 5,670 miles (9,125 kilometers). This cable, which was designed with a capacity of 1.3 Tbps, utilizes two fiber pairs to achieve its stated bandwidth. Its two landing points are located in Paddington, Australia, and Keawaula, Hawaii in the United States. The cable is fully owned and operated by Telstra.

Telstra Endeavour Subsea Cable System Map

Intra-Asia Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
38Myanmar/Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit (MIST)20235,0338,100
39Raman20244,3677,028
40Apricot20247,45612,000
41SEA-H2X20243,1075,000
42Asia Link Cable (ALC)20253,7286,000
43Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2)20246,52410,500
44Asia Direct Cable (ADC)20235,8419,400
45Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC)20182,8584,600
46Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG)20165,0338,100
47Asia Pacific Gateway (APG)20166,46210,400
48Gulf Bridge International Cable System (GBICS)20123,2755,270
49Oman Australia Cable (OAC)20226,0899,800
50INDIGO Central20192,8634,607
51INDIGO West20192,8924,654
52Japan-Guam-Australia South (JGA-S)20204,3507,000
53EAC-C2C200222,68036,500
54Southeast Asia-Japan Cable (SJC)20135,5308,900
55Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2)200111,80619,000
56Australia-Japan Cable (AJC)20017,89112,700
57Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE)20125,0638,148
58TGN-Intra Asia20094,1636,700
59FALCON20066,40010,300
60FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) / REACH North Asia Loop (RNAL)20016,0899,800

The following is an overview of each of the top Intra-Asia subsea cables: Myanmar/Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit (MIST), Raman, Apricot, SEA-H2X, Asia Link Cable (ALC), Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2), Asia Direct Cable (ADC), Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC), Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG), Asia Pacific Gateway (APG), Gulf Bridge International Cable System (GBICS), Oman Australia Cable (OAC), INDIGO Central, INDIGO West, Japan-Guam-Australia South (JGA-S), EAC-C2C, Southeast Asia-Japan Cable (SJC), Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2), Australia-Japan Cable (AJC), Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE), TGN-Intra Asia, FALCON, and FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) / REACH North Asia Loop (RNAL).

Myanmar/Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit (MIST)

The Myanmar/Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit (MIST) subsea cable, currently under development, is set to be ready for service (RFS) in 2023. This comprehensive network spans 5,033 miles (8,100 kilometers) and possesses a design capacity of 240 Tbps facilitated by its 12 fiber pairs. The cable system will connect multiple landing points, including Chennai and Mumbai in India, Morib in Malaysia, Tuas in Singapore, and Satun in Thailand. Ownership of the MIST subsea cable is held by Orient Link, a joint venture between NTT, Japan ICT Fund, and WEN Capital.

Myanmar-Malaysia-India-Singapore Transit MIST Subsea Cable System Map

Raman

The Raman subsea cable, currently under development, is slated to be ready for service (RFS) in 2024. Spanning a substantial length of 4,367 miles (7,028 kilometers), this vast network is estimated to have a capacity of 240 Tbps, facilitated by 16 fiber pairs. The Raman subsea cable’s strategic landing points are situated at various locations including Haramous in Djibouti, Mumbai in India, Aqaba in Jordan, Barka and Salalah in Oman, and Duba in Saudi Arabia. This subsea cable is jointly owned by Google, Omantel, and Telecom Italia Sparkle.

Blue and Raman Subsea Cable System Map
Adapted from Haaretz as source.

Apricot

The Apricot subsea cable is currently under development, with its ready for service (RFS) date expected in 2024. Spanning 7,456 miles (12,000 kilometers) in length, it is designed to have a capacity of 190 Tbps, utilizing 16 fiber pairs. The cable will connect seven landing points, including Batam and Tanjung Pakis in Indonesia, Tuas in Singapore, Baler and Davao in the Philippines, Toucheng in Taiwan, Minamiboso in Japan, and Agat in Guam. The Apricot subsea cable is jointly owned by a consortium of companies comprising Chunghwa Telecom, Google, Meta Platforms, NTT, and PLDT.

Apricot Subsea Cable System Map

READ MORE: Apricot Subsea Cable – Google, Facebook, PLDT, Chunghwa

SEA-H2X

The SEA-H2X subsea cable is currently under development with its ready for service (RFS) date expected in 2024. Spanning a total length of 3,107 miles (5,000 kilometers), the cable is designed to have a capacity of 160 Tbps and will consist of eight fiber pairs.

SEA-H2X Subsea Cable System Map

The SEA-H2X subsea cable will connect several landing points, namely Tseung Kwan O in Hong Kong, Lingshui in China, Kuching in Malaysia, La Union in the Philippines, Tuas in Singapore, and Songkhla in Thailand. This cable is co-owned by several entities including China Mobile, China Unicom, and irix (PP Telecommunication).

Asia Link Cable (ALC)

The Asia Link Cable (ALC), currently under development, is a subsea cable system that is expected to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. Spanning 3,728 miles (6,000 kilometers) in length, it will have a design capacity of 144 Tbps, facilitated by 8 fiber pairs. The cable will establish connectivity among various strategic points including Hong Kong; Hainan in China; Bauang and Luna in the Philippines; Changi South in Singapore; Danang in Vietnam; and Tungku in Brunei. Ownership of the ALC subsea cable is shared among a consortium of telecommunications companies including China Telecom, DITO Telecommunity, Globe Telecom, Singtel, and Unified National Networks (UNN).

Asia Link Cable ALC Subsea Cable System Map

Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2)

The Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2) is currently under development and is expected to be ready for service (RFS) by 2024. This subsea cable has a length of 6,524 miles (10,500 kilometers), a design capacity of 144 Tbps, and eight fiber pairs. The cable will have landing points in several key locations: Hong Kong, Lingang in China, Chikura and Shima in Japan, Changi South in Singapore, Busan in South Korea, Fangshan and Tanshui in Taiwan, Songkhla in Thailand, and Quy Nhon in Vietnam.

Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 SJC2 Subsea Cable System Map

Ownership of the SJC2 subsea cable is shared among multiple companies, namely China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, KDDI, Meta Platforms, SK Telecom, Singtel, Telin, True Corporation, and VNPT International.

Asia Direct Cable (ADC)

The Asia Direct Cable (ADC) is a subsea cable currently under development, with its ready for service (RFS) date expected in 2023. Spanning a length of 5,841 miles (9,400 kilometers), the ADC is designed to have a capacity of 140 Tbps utilizing eight fiber pairs. Its landing points will be in seven locations: Chung Hom Kok in Hong Kong, Shantou in China, Maruyama in Japan, Batangas in the Philippines, Tuas in Singapore, Sriracha in Thailand, and Quy Nhon in Vietnam. The owners of the Asia Direct Cable (ADC) include China Telecom, China Unicom, National Telecom Public Company, PLDT, Singtel, SoftBank, Tata Communications, and Viettel.

Asia Direct Cable ADC Subsea Cable System Map

Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC)

The Australia-Singapore Cable (ASC) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2018. It spans a total length of 2,858 miles (4,600 kilometers) and boasts a design capacity of 60 Tbps, facilitated by four fiber pairs. The ASC has landing points in four locations: Perth in Australia, Anyer in Indonesia, Tanah Merah in Singapore, and Flying Fish Cove on Christmas Island, an Australian territory. Vocus Communications is the owner and operator of this cable.

Australia-Singapore Cable ASC Subsea Cable System Map

Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG)

The Bay of Bengal Gateway (BBG) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2016. The cable spans a length of 5,033 miles (8,100 kilometers) and boasts a design capacity of 55 Tbps. The BBG has three fiber pairs, connecting several key landing points including Chennai and Mumbai in India, Ratmalana in Sri Lanka, Penang in Malaysia, Barka in Oman, and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates. The ownership of the BBG subsea cable is shared among major telecommunications companies which include AT&T, China Telecom, Dialog Axiata, Etisalat UAE, Omantel, Reliance Jio Infocomm, Telekom Malaysia, Telstra, and Vodafone.

Bay of Bengal Gateway BBG Subsea Cable System Map

Asia Pacific Gateway (APG)

The Asia Pacific Gateway (APG) is an active subsea cable that has been operational since 2016. It boasts an impressive length of 6,462 miles (10,400 kilometers), and a design capacity of 54 Tbps. The cable system is composed of six fiber pairs, providing a robust network that connects various points throughout Asia.

Asia Pacific Gateway APG Subsea Cable System Map

APG’s landing points include Tseung Kwan O in Hong Kong; Chongming and Nanhui in China; Maruyama and Shima in Japan; Kuantan in Malaysia; Changi South in Singapore; Busan in South Korea; Toucheng in Taiwan; Songkhla in Thailand; and Da Nang in Vietnam. Ownership of the APG subsea cable is shared among several companies including China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, KT Corporation, LG Uplus, Meta Platforms, NTT, National Telecom Public Company, Starhub, TIME dotCom, VNPT International, and Viettel.

Gulf Bridge International Cable System (GBICS)

The Gulf Bridge International Cable System (GBICS) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2012. Spanning 3,275 miles (5,270 kilometers) in length, it boasts a design capacity of 51 Tbps, facilitated by 4 fiber pairs. The GBICS connects several landing points including Mumbai in India, Al Hidd in Bahrain, Bushehr in Iran, Al Faw in Iraq, Kuwait City in Kuwait, Al Seeb in Oman, Al Daayen in Qatar, Al Khobar in Saudi Arabia, and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates. The system is owned by Qatar-headquartered Gulf Bridge International (GBI).

Gulf Bridge International Cable System GBICS Subsea Cable System Map

Oman Australia Cable (OAC)

The Oman Australia Cable (OAC), currently in-service, has been operational since 2022. Spanning a length of 6,089 miles (9,800 kilometers), this subsea cable offers a robust design capacity of 39 Tbps, facilitated through three fiber pairs. It establishes key connectivity between its landing points in Perth, Australia; West Island in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, an Australian territory; Muscat, Oman; and Salalah, Oman. The Oman Australia Cable (OAC) is owned and operated by SUBCO, under the leadership of Bevan Slattery.

Oman Australia Cable OAC Subsea Cable System Map

INDIGO Central

The INDIGO Central subsea cable became ready for service (RFS) in 2019. Spanning 2,863 miles (4,607 kilometers), it features a substantial design capacity of 36 Tbps and includes 2 fiber pairs. This cable system establishes vital connections at its landing points in Alexandria (Sydney) and Perth, Australia, which are located on the East and West coasts of Australia, respectively. Ownership of the INDIGO Central subsea cable is shared among several parties including Australia’s Academic and Research Network (AARNet), Google, Indosat Ooredoo Hutchison (IOH), Singtel, and Superloop.

INDIGO Central Subsea Cable System Map

INDIGO West

The INDIGO West subsea cable became ready for service (RFS) in 2019. Stretching over a length of 2,892 miles (4,654 kilometers), it boasts a substantial design capacity of 36 Tbps, facilitated through two fiber pairs. The cable provides connectivity between Perth in Australia, Jakarta in Indonesia, and Tuas in Singapore. The INDIGO West is co-owned by multiple entities, including Australia’s Academic and Research Network (AARNet), Google, Indosat Ooredoo Hutchison (IOH), Singtel, Superloop, and Telstra.

INDIGO West Subsea Cable System Map

Japan-Guam-Australia South (JGA-S)

The Japan-Guam-Australia South (JGA-S) subsea cable is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2020. Spanning a length of 4,350 miles (7,000 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 36 Tbps, facilitated by 2 fiber pairs. The cable’s landing points include Brookvale and Maroochydore in Australia, as well as Piti in Guam. The JGA-S is jointly owned by Australia’s Academic and Research Network (AARNet), Google, and RTI Cables.

Japan-Guam-Australia South JGA-S Subsea Cable System Map

EAC-C2C

EAC-C2C is a subsea cable that is currently in-service, owned by Telstra. This cable became ready for service (RFS) in 2002 and spans an impressive length of 22,680 miles (36,500 kilometers). Its design capacity is robust, at 30 Tbps, and it includes eight fiber pairs for high-speed data transmission.

EAC-C2C Subsea Cable System Map

The EAC-C2C has a multitude of landing points, including sites in Hong Kong (Chung Hom Kok and Tseung Kwan O), China (Nanhui and Qingdao), Japan (Ajigaura, Chikura, and Shima), the Philippines (Batangas and Cavite), Singapore (Changi North and Changi South), South Korea (Busan and Shindu-Ri), Taiwan (Fangshan, Pali, and Tanshui), and Vietnam (Vung Tàu).

Southeast Asia-Japan Cable (SJC)

The Southeast Asia-Japan Cable (SJC) is a subsea cable system that has been operational since 2013. Spanning 5,530 miles (8,900 kilometers), it is designed with a capacity of 28 Tbps facilitated through six fiber pairs.

Southeast Asia-Japan Cable SJC Subsea Cable System Map

The cable connects various points across Asia, with landing sites in Chung Hom Kok, Hong Kong; Shantou, China; Chikura, Japan; Nasugbu, Philippines; Tuas, Singapore; and Telisai, Brunei. It is owned and operated by several prominent telecommunications and technology companies, including China Mobile, China Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, Globe Telecom, Google, KDDI, National Telecom Public Company, Singtel, Telkom Indonesia, and Unified National Networks (UNN).

Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2)

The Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 (APCN-2) is an in-service subsea cable, which has been operational since 2001. The cable spans a length of 11,806 miles (19,000 kilometers) and boasts a design capacity of 25.6 Tbps across its four fiber pairs. The subsea cable features landing points at Lantau Island in Hong Kong; Chongming and Shantou in China, Chikura and Kitaibaraki in Japan, Kuantan in Malaysia, Batangas in the Philippines, Katong in Singapore, Busan in South Korea, and Tanshui in Taiwan.

Asia-Pacific Cable Network 2 APCN-2 Subsea Cable System Map

The APCN-2 subsea cable is owned by a consortium of major telecommunications companies, including AT&T, BT, China Telecom, China Unicom, Chunghwa Telecom, HKBN (Hong Kong Broadband Network), KDDI, KT Corporation, LG Uplus, NTT, Orange, PCCW Global, PLDT, Singtel, SoftBank, Starhub, Tata Communications, Telekom Malaysia, Telstra, Verizon, and Vodafone.

Australia-Japan Cable (AJC)

The Australia-Japan Cable (AJC) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2001. Stretching 7,891 miles (12,700 kilometers) long, the cable has a design capacity of 25.6 Tbps, made possible by its four fiber pairs. The cable provides connectivity through six landing points: Oxford Falls and Paddington in Australia, Tanguisson Point and Tumon Bay in Guam, and Maruyama and Shima in Japan. The Australia-Japan Cable (AJC) is co-owned by five major telecommunication companies, namely AT&T, NTT, SoftBank, Telstra, and Verizon.

Australia-Japan Cable AJC Subsea Cable System Map

Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE)

The Asia Submarine-cable Express (ASE), a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2012, extends over a significant distance of 5,063 miles (8,148 kilometers). This cable, designed with a capacity of 15.4 Tbps, consists of 6 fiber pairs. ASE’s landing points are strategically distributed across Asia, including Tseung Kwan O in Hong Kong, Komesu and Maruyama in Japan, Mersing in Malaysia, Daet in the Philippines, and Changi South in Singapore. The subsea cable is jointly owned by the telecommunication companies NTT, PLDT, Starhub, and Telekom Malaysia.

Asia Submarine-cable Express ASE Subsea Cable System Map

TGN-Intra Asia

TGN-Intra Asia is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2009. Spanning a length of 4,163 miles (6,700 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 3.8 Tbps facilitated through four fiber pairs. The cable establishes connectivity between several strategic landing points, namely Deep Water Bay in Hong Kong, Ballesteros in the Philippines, Changi North in Singapore, and Vung Tàu in Vietnam. The TGN-Intra Asia subsea cable is owned and operated by Tata Communications.

TGN-Intra Asia Subsea Cable System Map

FALCON

The FALCON subsea cable, owned by Global Cloud Xchange (GCX), is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2006. Spanning a substantial distance of 6,400 miles (10,300 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 2.6 Tbps, facilitated by 8 fiber pairs.

FALCON Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) Subsea Cable Map

The cable connects an extensive range of locations, with landing points situated in Manama (Bahrain), Suez (Egypt), Mumbai and Trivendrum (India), Bandar Abbas and Chabahar (Iran), Al Faw (Iraq), Al Safat (Kuwait), Male (Maldives), Al Seeb and Khasab (Oman), Doha (Qatar), Al Khobar and Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Port Sudan (Sudan), Dubai (United Arab Emirates), and Al Ghaydah and Al Hudaydah (Yemen).

FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) / REACH North Asia Loop (RNAL)

The FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) / REACH North Asia Loop (RNAL) subsea cable is currently in-service, having been ready for service (RFS) since 2001. The cable stretches a total length of 6,089 miles (9,800 kilometers), with a design capacity of 0.1 Tbps.

FLAG North Asian Loop (FNAL) Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) Subsea Cable Map

The cable features six fiber pairs that connect various landing points, which include Tong Fuk in Hong Kong, Wada in Japan, Busan in South Korea, and Toucheng in Taiwan. The FNAL/RNAL subsea cable is jointly owned by Global Cloud Xchange (GCX), PCCW Global, and Telstra.

U.S.-Latin America Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
61Firmina20239,02014,517
62BRUSA20186,83511,000
63South Pacific Cable System (SPSC) / Mistral20214,5367,300
64Curie20206,50910,476
65Seabras-120176,71510,806
66Monet20176,55910,556
67América Móvil Submarine Cable System-1 (AMX-1)201411,06017,800
68Pacific Caribbean Cable System (PCCS)20153,7286,000
69South America-1 (SAm-1)200115,53425,000
70South American Crossing (SAC)200012,42720,000
71Americas-II20005,2038,373
72GlobeNet200014,60223,500
73ARCOS-120015,4068,700
74Pan-American Crossing (PAC)20006,21410,000
75Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC)20004,6607,500

An overview of each of the top U.S.-Latin America subsea cables is provided below, namely Firmina, BRUSA, South Pacific Cable System (SPSC)/Mistral, Curie, Seabras-1, Monet, América Móvil Submarine Cable System-1 (AMX-1), Pacific Caribbean Cable System (PCCS), South America-1 (SAm-1), South American Crossing (SAC), Americas-II, GlobeNet, ARCOS-1, Pan-American Crossing (PAC), and Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC).

Firmina

The Firmina subsea cable is currently under development with a scheduled ready for service (RFS) date in 2023. Spanning a substantial length of 9,020 miles (14,517 kilometers), it is designed to have a capacity of 240 Tbps, facilitated by 16 fiber pairs. The cable features landing points in Las Toninas, Argentina; Punta del Este, Uruguay; Praia Grande, Brazil; and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina in the United States. The Firmina subsea cable is owned by Google.

Firmina Subsea Cable Map

READ MORE: Google’s Firmina Cable to Link-Up with DC BLOX, Telxius, Lumen

BRUSA

The BRUSA subsea cable, owned by Telxius, is a prominent in-service system that became RFS in 2018. Spanning a considerable length of 6,835 miles (11,000 kilometers), the cable possesses a design capacity of 160 Tbps, facilitated through its eight fiber pairs. The BRUSA subsea cable features landing points in Fortaleza and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Virginia Beach, Virginia in the United States, establishing vital cross-continental connections.

BRUSA Subsea Cable System Map

South Pacific Cable System (SPSC) / Mistral

The South Pacific Cable System (SPSC), also known as Mistral, is an operational subsea cable owned by América Móvil and Telxius. This undersea infrastructure was ready for service (RFS) in 2021, spanning 4,536 miles (7,300 kilometers). With a design capacity of 132 Tbps, the cable is supported by six fiber pairs. SPSC/Mistral features landing points in Arica and Valparaíso in Chile, Salinas in Ecuador, Puerto San Jose in Guatemala, and Lurín in Peru.

South Pacific Cable System SPSC Mistral Subsea Cable System Map

Curie

The Curie subsea cable, owned by Google, has been in-service since 2020. It stretches an impressive 6,509 miles (10,476 kilometers) across the Pacific Ocean, connecting Valparaíso, Chile; Balboa, Panama; and El Segundo, California in the United States. The cable, consisting of four fiber pairs, was designed with a capacity of 72 Tbps.

Curie Subsea Cable System Map

Seabras-1

Seabras-1, a subsea cable currently in-service since 2017, extends a considerable 6,715 miles (10,806 kilometers) in length. With a design capacity of 72 Tbps and six fiber pairs, it is a critical piece of U.S.-Latin America communications infrastructure. The Seabras-1 is currently owned by Seaborn Networks and Telecom Italia Sparkle, with its landing points located in Praia Grande, Brazil, and Wall Township, New Jersey, in the United States.

Seabras-1 Subsea Cable System Map

Monet

The Monet subsea cable, which is currently in-service, was RFS in 2017. Spanning a length of 6,559 miles (10,556 kilometers), the cable boasts a design capacity of 60 Tbps. It comprises six fiber pairs, and its landing points are strategically placed in Fortaleza and Santos (São Paulo state), Brazil, as well as Boca Raton, Florida, in the United States. The Monet cable is owned and operated by a consortium of Algar Telecom, Angola Cables, Antel, and Google.

Monet Subsea Cable System Map

América Móvil Submarine Cable System-1 (AMX-1)

The América Móvil Submarine Cable System-1 (AMX-1) is an operational subsea cable owned by América Móvil. The cable, which became ready for service (RFS) in 2014, spans 11,060 miles (17,800 kilometers) and boasts a design capacity of 50 Tbps, facilitated through nine fiber pairs.

América Móvil Submarine Cable System-1 AMX-1 Subsea Cable System Map

AMX-1 lands in various locations including Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador in Brazil; Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Schooner Bight (San Andrés) in Colombia; Puerto Limón in Costa Rica; Puerto Plata and Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic; Puerto Barrios in Guatemala; Cancún in Mexico; Ponce and San Juan in Puerto Rico; and Hollywood and Jacksonville in Florida, United States.

Pacific Caribbean Cable System (PCCS)

The Pacific Caribbean Cable System (PCCS) is an in-service subsea cable that was RFS in 2015. Spanning a total length of 3,728 miles (6,000 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 45 Tbps, facilitated by six fiber pairs.

Pacific Caribbean Cable System PCCS Subsea Cable System Map

The PCCS has numerous landing points, which include Cartagena in Colombia, Hudishibana in Aruba, Mahuma in Curaçao, Manta in Ecuador, Balboa and Maria Chiquita in Panama, San Juan in Puerto Rico, Jacksonville, Florida in the United States, and Tortola in the British Virgin Islands. The Pacific Caribbean Cable System (PCCS) is owned by a consortium of telecommunications companies including Liberty Latin America, SETAR, Telconet, Telxius, and United Telecommunication Services (UTS).

South America-1 (SAm-1)

South America-1 (SAm-1) is a subsea cable owned by Telxius that has been in-service since 2001. Spanning a total length of 15,534 miles (25,000 kilometers), the cable boasts a design capacity of 19 Tbps, supported by four fiber pairs.

South America-1 SAm-1 Subsea Cable System Map

SAm-1 links several key locations across the Americas with landing points in Las Toninas, Argentina; Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Santos in Brazil; Arica and Valparaíso in Chile; Barranquilla, Colombia; Punta Cana, Dominican Republic; Punta Carnero, Ecuador; Puerto Barrios and Puerto San Jose in Guatemala; Lurín and Máncora in Peru; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and Boca Raton, Florida in the United States.

South American Crossing (SAC)

South American Crossing (SAC) is a subsea cable that is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2000. Spanning an impressive 12,427 miles (20,000 kilometers), the cable has a design capacity of 15 Tbps, incorporating four fiber pairs within its structure. This cable has extensive connectivity with landing points in Las Toninas, Argentina; Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, and Santos in Brazil; Valparaíso, Chile; Buenaventura, Colombia; Colón and Fort Amador in Panama; Lurín, Peru; Puerto Viejo, Venezuela; and St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The South American Crossing (SAC) subsea cable is jointly owned by Cirion Technologies and Telecom Italia Sparkle.

South American Crossing SAC Subsea Cable System Map

Americas-II

The Americas-II subsea cable, which is currently in-service, became RFS in 2000. With a total length of 5,203 miles (8,373 kilometers), the cable has a design capacity of 10 Tbps and features 12 fiber pairs. Its strategic landing points are located in Fortaleza, Brazil; Cayenne, French Guiana; Willemstad, Curaçao; Le Lamentin, Martinique; Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; Camuri, Venezuela; Miramar, Puerto Rico; Hollywood, Florida in the United States; and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Americas-II Subsea Cable System Map

Ownership of Americas-II is shared among several major telecommunications companies including AT&T, Altice Europe, CANTV, Corporación Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (CNT), Embratel, Liberty Latin America, Lumen Technologies, Orange, T-Mobile, Tata Communications, Telecom Italia Sparkle, and Verizon.

GlobeNet

The GlobeNet subsea cable, owned by BTG Pactual’s Infrastructure Fund II, is a fully operational system that has been ready for service (RFS) since 2000. It stretches a significant length of 14,602 miles (23,500 kilometers), and boasts a design capacity of 9.2 Tbps, facilitated by four fiber pairs. The cable system is strategically situated with landing points in various locations including Fortaleza and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil; Barranquilla, Colombia; Maiquetía in Venezuela; St. David’s, Bermuda; as well as Boca Raton, Florida and Tuckerton, New Jersey in the United States.

GlobeNet Subsea Cable System Map

ARCOS-1

The ARCOS-1 subsea cable, which is currently in-service, has been operational since its RFS date in 2001. Spanning a total length of 5,406 miles (8,700 kilometers), the cable boasts a design capacity of 8.4 Tbps with 12 fiber pairs.

ARCOS-1 Subsea Cable System Map

ARCOS-1 makes landfall at numerous locations, including Cat Island, Crooked Island, and Nassau in the Bahamas; Belize City, Belize; Cartagena and Riohacha in Colombia; Puerto Limón, Costa Rica; Willemstad, Curaçao; Puerto Plata and Punta Cana in the Dominican Republic; Puerto Barrios, Puerto Cortes, Puerto Lempira, and Trujillo in Honduras; Cancún and Tulum in Mexico; Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas in Nicaragua; Maria Chiquita and Ustupo in Panama; Providenciales in the Turks and Caicos Islands; Punto Fijo in Venezuela; Isla Verde in Puerto Rico; North Miami Beach, Florida in the United States.

The ARCOS-1 subsea cable is jointly owned by a consortium that includes América Móvil, AT&T, Alestra, Bahamas Telecommunications Company (BTC), Belize Telemedia, CANTV, Hondutel, Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Internexa, Liberty Latin America, Millicom, Orbinet Overseas, Telecomunicaciones Ultramarinas de Puerto Rico, Telepuerto San Isidro, Tricom USA, and Verizon.

Pan-American Crossing (PAC)

The Pan-American Crossing (PAC) subsea cable, owned by Cirion Technologies, is an undersea communication network currently in-service, declared RFS in 2000. With a substantial length of 6,214 miles (10,000 kilometers), the PAC subsea cable has a design capacity of 3.2 Tbps and incorporates 2 fiber pairs for data transmission. This cable has landing points in Unqui, Costa Rica; Mazatlán and Tijuana, Mexico; Fort Amador, Panama; and Grover Beach, California in the United States.

Pan-American Crossing PAC Subsea Cable System Map

Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC)

The Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2000. It spans 4,660 miles (7,500 kilometers), connecting Brookhaven, New York; Hollywood, Florida; and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. With a design capacity of 0.9 Tbps, the MAC cable consists of two fiber pairs. The cable is currently owned and operated by Cirion Technologies.

Mid-Atlantic Crossing MAC Subsea Cable System Map

Europe-Asia Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
76Blue20242,9184,696
77Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe (PEACE)20229,32115,000
78SEA-ME-WE 6202511,93019,200
79Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1)201715,53425,000
80India-Middle East-Western Europe (I-ME-WE)20107,51312,091
81Middle East North Africa (MENA)20145,0338,100
82SEA-ME-WE 5201612,42720,000
83Europe India Gateway (EIG)20119,32115,000
84SEA-ME-WE 4200511,68218,800
85SEA-ME-WE 3199924,23339,000
86MedNautilus20014,6607,500
87FLAG Europe-Asia (FEA)199717,39828,000

Below is an overview of each of the top Europe-Asia subsea cables: Blue, Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe (PEACE), SEA-ME-WE 6, Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1), India-Middle East-Western Europe (I-ME-WE), Middle East North Africa (MENA), SEA-ME-WE 5, Europe India Gateway (EIG), SEA-ME-WE 4, SEA-ME-WE 3, MedNautilus, and FLAG Europe-Asia (FEA).

Blue

The Blue subsea cable is currently under development with an anticipated ready for service (RFS) date in 2024. Extending a total length of 2,918 miles (4,696 kilometers), this sizable undersea network is estimated to support a capacity of 240 Tbps, facilitated through 16 fiber pairs. The Blue subsea cable features a diverse network of landing points, connecting Yeroskipos in Cyprus, Bastia and Marseille in France, Chania in Greece, Tel Aviv in Israel, along with Genoa, Golfo Aranci, and Palermo in Italy, and finally Aqaba in Jordan. Ownership of the Blue subsea cable is held by Google, Omantel, and Telecom Italia Sparkle.

Blue and Raman Subsea Cable System Map
Adapted from Haaretz as source.

Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe (PEACE)

The Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe (PEACE) subsea cable, owned by HENGTONG Group, is currently in-service and has been RFS since 2022. It spans a total length of 9,321 miles (15,000 kilometers). The cable, designed with a capacity of 192 Tbps, features six fiber pairs. The PEACE cable has landing points in various locations: Yeroskipos in Cyprus; Djibouti City in Djibouti; Abu Talat and Zafarana in Egypt; Marseille in France; Mombasa in Kenya; Kulhudhufushi in the Maldives; Mellieha in Malta; Karachi in Pakistan; Jeddah in Saudi Arabia; Victoria in the Seychelles; Tuas in Singapore; and Bizerte in Tunisia.

Pakistan & East Africa Connecting Europe PEACE Subsea Cable System Map

SEA-ME-WE 6

The SEA-ME-WE 6 is a subsea cable currently under development, set to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. With a considerable length of 11,930 miles (19,200 kilometers), this undersea infrastructure is designed with a capacity of 126 Tbps and encompasses 10 fiber pairs.

SEA-ME-WE 6 Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe 6 Map

The SEA-ME-WE 6 subsea cable network extends across multiple landing points including Manama in Bahrain, Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh, Djibouti City in Djibouti, Port Said and Ras Ghareb in Egypt, Marseille in France, Chennai and Mumbai in India, Morib in Malaysia, Hulhumale in Maldives, Muscat in Oman, Karachi in Pakistan, Doha in Qatar, Yanbu in Saudi Arabia, Tuas in Singapore, Matara in Sri Lanka, and Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.

SEA-ME-WE 6 is owned by various companies including Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Limited (BSCCL), Batelco, Bharti Airtel, China Unicom, Dhiraagu, Djibouti Telecom, Microsoft, Mobily, Orange, PCCW, Singtel, Sri Lanka Telecom, Telecom Egypt, Telekom Malaysia, Telin, and Transworld.

READ MORE: SEA-ME-WE 6 Consortium Launches 11.9k-Mile Subsea Cable

Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1)

The Asia Africa Europe-1 (AAE-1) is a subsea cable that has been in-service since 2017. Stretching 15,534 miles (25,000 kilometers) in length, the cable is designed with a capacity of 80 Tbps and contains 5 fiber pairs.

Asia Africa Europe-1 AAE-1 Subsea Cable System Map

The AAE-1 subsea cable connects numerous landing points such as Sihanoukville in Cambodia, Djibouti City in Djibouti, Abu Talat and Zafarana in Egypt, Marseille in France, Chania in Greece, Cape D’Aguilar in Hong Kong, Mumbai in India, Bari in Italy, Butterworth in Malaysia, Ngwe Saung in Myanmar, Al Bustan in Oman, Karachi in Pakistan, Doha in Qatar, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Satun and Songkhla in Thailand, Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates, Vung Tàu in Vietnam, and Aden in Yemen.

This vast network owned by multiple companies including China Unicom, Djibouti Telecom, Etihad Etisalat, Etisalat UAE, Hyalroute, National Telecom Public Company, Omantel, Ooredoo, OTE Group, PCCW, Pakistan Telecommunications Company, Reliance Jio Infocomm, Retelit, TIME dotCom, Telecom Egypt, VNPT International, and Viettel.

India-Middle East-Western Europe (I-ME-WE)

The India-Middle East-Western Europe (I-ME-WE) subsea cable is currently in-service and has been RFS since 2010. The cable spans a considerable length of 7,513 miles (12,091 kilometers), possessing a design capacity of 77 Tbps facilitated by three fiber pairs.

India-Middle East-Western Europe I-ME-WE Subsea Cable System Map

I-ME-WE’s landing points are strategically spread across several regions including Alexandria and Suez in Egypt, Marseille in France, Mumbai in India, Catania in Italy, Tripoli in Lebanon, Karachi in Pakistan, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates. The I-ME-WE subsea cable is co-owned by several organizations including Bharti Airtel, Etisalat UAE, Ogero, Orange, Pakistan Telecommunications Company, Saudi Telecom, Tata Communications, Telecom Egypt, and Telecom Italia Sparkle.

Middle East North Africa (MENA)

The Middle East North Africa (MENA) subsea cable, which is currently in-service, became RFS in 2014. Spanning a length of 5,033 miles (8,100 kilometers), the cable has a designed capacity of 58 Tbps and utilizes 6 fiber pairs to facilitate data transmission. It features landing points in six locations: Djibouti City, Djibouti; Abu Talat, Egypt; Zafarana, Egypt; Mazara del Vallo, Italy; Al Seeb, Oman; and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ownership of the cable is shared between Qatar-headquartered Gulf Bridge International (GBI) and Telecom Egypt.

Middle East North Africa MENA Subsea Cable System Map

SEA-ME-WE 5

The SEA-ME-WE 5 subsea cable has been in-service since 2016. Spanning a length of 12,427 miles (20,000 kilometers), it offers a design capacity of 38 Tbps, made possible by its three fiber pairs.

SEA-ME-WE 5 Subsea Cable System Map

The SEA-ME-WE 5 subsea cable has numerous landing points around the world, including locations such as Kuakata in Bangladesh, Haramous in Djibouti, Abu Talat and Zafarana in Egypt, Toulon in France, Dumai and Medan in Indonesia, Catania in Italy, Melaka in Malaysia, Ngwe Saung in Myanmar, Qalhat in Oman, Karachi in Pakistan, Yanbu in Saudi Arabia, Tuas in Singapore, Matara in Sri Lanka, Marmaris in Turkey, Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates, and Al Hudaydah in Yemen.

Ownership of SEA-ME-WE 5 is shared among several entities, namely Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Limited (BSCCL), China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Djibouti Telecom, du, Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT), Ooredoo, Orange, Saudi Telecom, Singtel, Sri Lanka Telecom, Telecom Egypt, Telecom Italia Sparkle, Telekom Malaysia, Telkom Indonesia, Transworld, and Turk Telekom.

Europe India Gateway (EIG)

The Europe India Gateway (EIG) is a fully operational subsea cable, having been ready for service (RFS) since 2011. Spanning 9,321 miles (15,000 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 28 Tbps, facilitated by its three fiber pairs.

Europe India Gateway EIG Subsea Cable System Map

EIG has a broad global reach with landing points in several locations, including Haramous in Djibouti, Abu Talat and Zafarana in Egypt, Gibraltar, Mumbai in India, Tripoli in Libya, Monaco, Barka in Oman, Sesimbra in Portugal, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates, and Bude in England.

The cable’s ownership is shared among a consortium of companies, which includes AT&T, Altice Europe, Bharti Airtel, BSNL, BT, Djibouti Telecom, du, Gibtelecom, Libya International Telecommunications, MTN, Omantel, Saudi Telecom, Telecom Egypt, Telkom South Africa, Verizon, Vodafone.

SEA-ME-WE 4

The SEA-ME-WE 4 is an in-service subsea cable that became RFS in 2005. It spans 11,682 miles (18,800 kilometers) and has a design capacity of 12.8 Tbps, consisting of two fiber pairs.

SEA-ME-WE 4 Subsea Cable System Map

The SEA-ME-WE 4 subsea cable has landing points in several locations, including Annaba, Algeria; Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh; Alexandria and Suez in Egypt; Marseille, France; Chennai and Mumbai in India; Palermo, Italy; Melaka, Malaysia; Karachi, Pakistan; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Tuas, Singapore; Colombo, Sri Lanka; Satun, Thailand; Bizerte, Tunisia; and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates.

The cable is jointly owned by several organizations, including Algerie Telecom, Bangladesh Submarine Cable Company Limited (BSCCL), Bharti Airtel, Etisalat UAE, National Telecom Public Company, Orange, Pakistan Telecommunications Company, Saudi Telecom, Singtel, Sri Lanka Telecom, Tata Communications, Telecom Egypt, Telecom Italia Sparkle, Telekom Malaysia, Tunisia Telecom, and Verizon.

SEA-ME-WE 3

SEA-ME-WE 3 is a subsea cable that is currently in-service, having become RFS in 1999. The cable extends a significant length of 24,233 miles (39,000 kilometers). With a design capacity of 4.6 Tbps, it consists of 2 fiber pairs.

SEA-ME-WE 3 Route and Landing Points Map

The SEA-ME-WE 3 subsea cable has numerous landing points including Perth in Australia, Ostend in Belgium, Tungku in Brunei, Deep Water Bay in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shantou, and Taipa in China, Yeroskipos in Cyprus, Djibouti City in Djibouti, Alexandria and Suez in Egypt, Penmarch in France, Chania in Greece, Cochin and Mumbai in India, Ancol and Medan in Indonesia, Mazara del Vallo in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Mersing and Penang in Malaysia, Tétouan in Morocco, Pyapon in Myanmar, Muscat in Oman, Karachi in Pakistan, Batangas in the Philippines, Sesimbra in Portugal, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Tuas in Singapore, Geoje in South Korea, Mt. Lavinia in Sri Lanka, Fangshan and Toucheng in Taiwan, Satun in Thailand, Marmarin Turkey, Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates, Goonhilly Downs in the United Kingdom, and Danang in Vietnam.

SEA-ME-WE 3 is owned by a consortium of global telecommunications companies: A1 Telekom Austria, Altice Europe, América Móvil, AT&T, BT, China Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, Cyta, Deutsche Telekom, Djibouti Telecom, eir, Etisalat UAE, Indosat Ooredoo Hutchison (IOH), Jabatan Telecom Brunei, KDDI, KPN, KT Corporation, LG Uplus, Maroc Telecom, Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (MPT), Proximus, National Telecom Public Company, Omantel, Orange, OTE Group, PCCW Global, PLDT, Pakistan Telecommunications Company Ltd., Rostelecom, Saudi Telecom, Singtel, SoftBank, Sri Lanka Telecom, Tata Communications, Telecom Argentina, Telecom Egypt, Telecom Italia Sparkle, Telekom Malaysia, Telkom South Africa, Telstra, Tunisia Telecom, Turk Telekom, Ukrtelecom, Verizon, Vocus Communications, Vodafone, and VNPT International.

MedNautilus

The MedNautilus subsea cable, owned by Telecom Italia Sparkle, has been in-service since 2001. Spanning a total length of 4,660 miles (7,500 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 3.8 Tbps and includes six fiber pairs. The MedNautilus subsea cable system connects multiple locations, with landing points in Pentaskhinos, Cyprus; Athens and Chania in Greece; Haifa and Tel Aviv in Israel; Catania, Italy; and Istanbul, Turkey.

MedNautilus Subsea Cable System Map

FLAG Europe-Asia (FEA)

The FLAG Europe-Asia (FEA) subsea cable, owned by Global Cloud Xchange (GCX), is currently in-service and has been RFS since 1997. This substantial cable stretches over 17,398 miles (28,000 kilometers) and has a design capacity of 0.5 Tbps facilitated by 2 fiber pairs.

FLAG Europe Asia (FEA) Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) Subsea Cable Map

The cable connects various global locations with landing points in Lantau Island in Hong Kong, Nanhui in China, Alexandria, Port Said, and Suez in Egypt, Mumbai in India, Palermo in Italy, Miura in Japan, Aqaba in Jordan, Penang in Malaysia, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Geoje in South Korea, Estepona in Spain, Satun and Songkhla in Thailand, Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates, and Porthcurno in England.

Africa Subsea Cables

#Subsea CableRFSMilesKilometers
88Medusa20255,4438,760
89Africa-120246,21410,000
902Africa202327,96245,000
91Equiano20239,32115,000
92Maroc Telecom West Africa20215,6639,114
93Eastern Africa Submarine System (EASSy)20106,21410,000
94Africa Coast to Europe (ACE)201210,56317,000
95West Africa Cable System (WACS)20129,02914,530
96MainOne20104,3507,000
97SEACOM / TGN-Eurasia20099,32115,000
98Globacom-1 (Glo-1)20106,0899,800
99South Atlantic 3 (SAT-3) / West Africa Submarine Cable (WASC)20028,91714,350
100South Africa Far East (SAFE)20028,38913,500

Below is an overview of each of the top subsea cables in the Africa region: Medusa, Africa-1, 2Africa, Equiano, Maroc Telecom West Africa, Eastern Africa Submarine System (EASSy), Africa Coast to Europe (ACE), West Africa Cable System (WACS), MainOne, SEACOM/TGN-Eurasia, Globacom-1 (Glo-1), South Atlantic 3 (SAT-3)/West Africa Submarine Cable (WASC), and South Africa Far East (SAFE).

Medusa

The Medusa subsea cable, currently under development, is expected to be ready for service (RFS) in 2025. This cable will stretch 5,443 miles (8,760 kilometers) and is designed to carry a capacity of 480 Tbps, supported by 24 fiber pairs. The cable’s route will feature landing points in multiple locations including Algiers and Collo in Algeria; Yeroskipos, Cyprus; Port Said, Egypt; Marseille, France; Heraklion on Crete, Greece; Mazara del Vallo, Italy; Nador and Tétouan in Morocco; Carcavelos and Sines in Portugal; Barcelona, Torreguadiaro, and Zahara de los Atunes in Spain; and Bizerte, Tunisia. The Medusa subsea cable is owned by AFRIX Telecom.

Medusa Subsea Cable System Map

Africa-1

The Africa-1 subsea cable is currently under development and is anticipated to be ready for service (RFS) in 2024. This undersea infrastructure, extending over 6,214 miles (10,000 kilometers) in length, is designed to have a capacity of 192 Tbps through its 8 fiber pairs.

Africa-1 Subsea Cable System Map

The Africa-1 cable will establish connectivity between multiple locations around the world, landing at points in Bejaia, Algeria; Djibouti City, Djibouti; Port Said and Ras Ghareb in Egypt; Marseille, France; Mombasa, Kenya; Karachi, Pakistan; Duba, Saudi Arabia; Berbera, Somalia; Kalba, United Arab Emirates, and Mocha, Yemen.

Africa-1 is owned by several global telecommunication companies, including Etihad Etisalat, Etisalat UAE, G42, Pakistan Telecommunications Company, and Telecom Egypt.

2Africa

The 2Africa subsea cable is currently under development and is expected to be ready for service (RFS) in 2023. It is set to have an impressive length of 27,962 miles (45,000 kilometers) and a design capacity of 180 Tbps, facilitated by 16 fiber pairs.

2Africa PEARLS Route and Landing Points Map

The 2Africa subsea cable will provide a network spanning across numerous landing points: Luanda in Angola, Manama in Bahrain, Moroni in Comoros, Muanda in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pointe-Noire in Congo, Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti City in Djibouti, Port Said, Ras Ghareb, Suez, and Zafarana in Egypt, Bude in England, Marseille in France, Libreville in Gabon, Accra in Ghana, Tympaki in Greece, Mumbai in India, Al Faw in Iraq, Genoa in Italy, Mombasa and Mtwapa in Kenya, Kuwait City in Kuwait, Mahajanga in Madagascar, Maputo and Nacala in Mozambique, Kwa Ibo and Lagos in Nigeria, Barka and Salalah in Oman, Karachi in Pakistan, Carcavelos in Portugal, Doha in Qatar, Al Khobar, Duba, Jeddah, and Yanbu in Saudi Arabia, Dakar in Senegal, Carana in Seychelles, Berbera and Mogadishu in Somalia, Amanzimtoti, Gqeberha, Melkbosstrand, and Yzerfontein in South Africa, Barcelona and Gran Canaria in Spain, Port Sudan in Sudan, Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania, Abu Dhabi and Kalba in the United Arab Emirates.

2Africa is owned by a consortium of companies that includes China Mobile, MTN, Meta Platforms, Orange, Saudi Telecom, Telecom Egypt, Vodafone, and WIOCC.

READ MORE: 2Africa Subsea Cable Expands to 28k Miles, 33 Countries

Equiano

The Equiano subsea cable, which is currently in-service as of 2023, stretches over a distance of 9,321 miles (15,000 kilometers). With a robust design capacity of 144 Tbps, it incorporates 12 fiber pairs to facilitate high-speed data transfer. This cable is strategically landed at several points including Swakopmund in Namibia, Lagos in Nigeria, Sesimbra in Portugal, Rupert’s Bay in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Melkbosstrand in South Africa, and Lome in Togo. Google is the owner of the Equiano subsea cable.

Equiano Subsea Cable System Map

Maroc Telecom West Africa

The Maroc Telecom West Africa subsea cable, currently in-service, was RFS in 2021. This undersea network spans a distance of 5,663 miles (9,114 kilometers). Though the design capacity and number of fiber pairs have not been disclosed, it still establishes important telecommunication connections across West Africa. Its landing points include Cotonou in Benin, Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire, Libreville in Gabon, Casablanca and Dakhla in Morocco, and Lome in Togo. The subsea cable is owned by Maroc Telecom.

Maroc Telecom West Africa Subsea Cable System Map

Eastern Africa Submarine System (EASSy)

The Eastern Africa Submarine System (EASSy), which has been in-service since 2010, spans a length of 6,214 miles (10,000 kilometers). Designed with a capacity of 36 Tbps and featuring two fiber pairs, the EASSy provides a important connectivity for East Africa.

Eastern Africa Submarine System EASSy Subsea Cable System Map

EASSy has established landing points in Moroni, Comoros; Haramous, Djibouti; Mombasa, Kenya; Toliara, Madagascar; Maputo, Mozambique; Mogadishu, Somalia; Mtunzini, South Africa; Port Sudan, Sudan; and Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

Ownership of the EASSy subsea cable is shared among numerous companies, such as Bharti Airtel, Botswana Fibre Networks, BT, Comores Telecom, Djibouti Telecom, Etisalat UAE, Liquid Intelligent Technologies, MTN, Mauritius Telecom, Orange, Saudi Telecom, Sudan Telecom Company, Tanzania Telecommunication Corporation, Telkom Kenya, Telkom South Africa, Telma (Telecom Malagasy), Vodacom, WIOCC, and Zambia Telecom.

Africa Coast to Europe (ACE)

The Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) subsea cable, which has been in-service since 2012, extends over a length of 10,563 miles (17,000 kilometers). The design capacity of the cable stands at 20 Tbps, facilitated by its two fiber pairs.

Africa Coast to Europe ACE Subsea Cable System Map

The ACE subsea cable links multiple landing points: Cotonou in Benin; Kribi in Cameroon; Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire; Bata in Equatorial Guinea; Penmarch in France; Libreville in Gabon; Banjul in Gambia; Accra in Ghana; Conakry in Guinea; Suro in Guinea-Bissau; Monrovia in Liberia; Nouakchott in Mauritania; Lagos in Nigeria; Carcavelos in Portugal; Sao Tome in Sao Tome and Principe; Dakar in Senegal; Freetown in Sierra Leone; Duynefontein in South Africa; Granadilla in Canary Islands, Spain.

ACE is owned by a consortium of various entities such as Benin ACE GIE, Cable Consortium of Liberia, Dolphin Telecom, GUILAB, Gambia Submarine Cable Company, International Mauritania Telecom, IslaLink, MTN, Orange, Republic of Cameroon, Republic of Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Gabon, Republic of Guinea Bissau, STP Cabo, Sierra Leone Cable Company, Sonatel, and Zamani Telecom.

West Africa Cable System (WACS)

The West Africa Cable System (WACS) is a subsea cable that is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2012. This system spans 9,029 miles (14,530 kilometers) and has a design capacity of 15 Tbps, composed of four fiber pairs.

West Africa Cable System WACS Subsea Cable System Map

The WACS subsea cable’s landing points are Sangano in Angola, Limbe in Cameroon, Praia in Cape Verde, Muanda in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pointe-Noire in Congo, Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire, Accra in Ghana, Swakopmund in Namibia, Lagos in Nigeria, Seixal in Portugal, Yzerfontein in South Africa, El Goro in the Canary Islands, Spain, and Lome in Togo.

WACS is owned by a consortium of companies including Altice Europe, Angola Cables, Broadband Infraco, Camtel, Cape Verde Telecom, Congo Telecom, Liquid Intelligent Technologies, MTN, Office Congolais de Poste et Télécommunication, PCCW Global, Tata Communications, Telecom Namibia, Telkom South Africa, Togo Telecom, Vodacom, and Vodafone.

MainOne

The MainOne subsea cable, owned by Equinix, has been in-service since 2010. With a length of 4,350 miles (7,000 kilometers), the cable provides a design capacity of 10 Tbps via a single fiber pair. Its strategic landing points are located in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Accra, Ghana; Lagos, Nigeria; Seixal, Portugal; and Dakar, Senegal, ensuring broad reach and connectivity.

MainOne Subsea Cable System Map

READ MORE: Equinix Buys MainOne for $320m, Gains Subsea Cables in Africa

SEACOM / TGN-Eurasia

The SEACOM / TGN-Eurasia subsea cable has been in-service since its RFS date in 2009. Stretching a distance of 9,321 miles (15,000 kilometers), the cable is designed with a capacity of 6 Tbps and consists of two fiber pairs. Its network connects eight landing points which include Djibouti City in Djibouti, Zafarana in Egypt, Mumbai in India, Mombasa in Kenya, Maputo in Mozambique, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Mtunzini in South Africa, and Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania. The owners of this subsea cable system are SEACOM and Tata Communications.

SEACOM - TGN-Eurasia Subsea Cable System Map

Globacom-1 (Glo-1)

The Globacom-1 (Glo-1) subsea cable has been in-service since its RFS date in 2010. Spanning a total length of 6,089 miles (9,800 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 2.5 Tbps facilitated by two fiber pairs. The Glo-1’s primary landing points include Accra in Ghana, Lagos in Nigeria, and Bude in England. This significant submarine infrastructure is owned by Globacom Limited, a company under the control of Mike Adenuga.

Globacom-1 Glo-1 Subsea Cable System Map

South Atlantic 3 (SAT-3) / West Africa Submarine Cable (WASC)

The South Atlantic 3 (SAT-3) or West Africa Submarine Cable (WASC) is an in-service subsea cable that has been RFS since 2002. It stretches across a considerable distance of 8,917 miles (14,350 kilometers), boasting a design capacity of 0.8 Tbps supported by two fiber pairs.

South Atlantic 3 SAT-3 West Africa Submarine Cable WASC Subsea Cable System Map

The SAT-3 / WASC subsea cable lands in several locations, including Cacuaco, Angola; Cotonou, Benin; Douala, Cameroon; Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire; Libreville, Gabon; Accra, Ghana; Lagos, Nigeria; Sesimbra, Portugal; Dakar, Senegal; Melkbosstrand, South Africa; Alta Vista, Canary Islands, Spain; and Chipiona, Spain.

Ownership of the SAT-3 / WASC subsea cable is shared among a variety of entities such as Altice Europe, Angola Telecom, AT&T, Benin Telecoms, BT, Camtel, China Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, Cyta, Deutsche Telekom, Ghana Telecommunications Company, KPN, KT Corporation, Liquid Intelligent Technologies, Maroc Telecom, Mauritius Telecom, NATCOM, OPT, Orange, PCCW Global, Proximus, Singtel, T-Mobile, Tata Communications, Telecom Italia Sparkle, Telecom Namibia, Telekom Malaysia, Telkom South Africa, Telstra, Telxius, Verizon, and Vodafone.

South Africa Far East (SAFE)

The South Africa Far East (SAFE) subsea cable is currently in-service, having been RFS since 2002. With a length of 8,389 miles (13,500 kilometers), it boasts a design capacity of 0.4 Tbps and comprises 2 fiber pairs.

South Africa Far East SAFE Subsea Cable System Map

The SAFE subsea cable connects multiple landing points including Cochin in India, Penang in Malaysia, Baie Jacotet in Mauritius, Saint Paul in Réunion, Melkbosstrand and Mtunzini in South Africa.

Ownership of the South Africa Far East (SAFE) subsea cable is held by a consortium of companies, including AT&T, Angola Telecom, Camtel, China Telecom, Chunghwa Telecom, Ghana Telecommunications Company, KPN, KT Corporation, Liquid Intelligent Technologies, Maroc Telecom, Mauritius Telecom, NATCOM, OPT, Orange, PCCW Global, Proximus, Singtel, Sonatel, T-Mobile, Tata Communications, Telecom Italia Sparkle, Telecom Namibia, Telefonica, Telekom Malaysia, Telkom South Africa, Telstra, Verizon, and Vodafone.

READ MORE: Submarine Cables – the Invisible Fiber Link Enabling the Internet

Jonathan Kim covers Fiber for Dgtl Infra, including Zayo Group, Cogent Communications (NASDAQ: CCOI), Uniti Group (NASDAQ: UNIT), Lumen Technologies (NYSE: LUMN), Frontier Communications (NASDAQ: FYBR), Consolidated Communications (NASDAQ: CNSL), and many more. Within Fiber, Jonathan focuses on the sub-sectors of wholesale / dark fiber, enterprise fiber, fiber-to-the-home (FTTH), fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP), and subsea cables. Jonathan has over 8 years of experience in research and writing for Fiber.

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