Surging demand for data consumption and storage is driving a rapid expansion of data centers in the United States. These US data centers are located in areas with abundant electricity for their intense power demands, copious amounts of water for cooling, access to fiber connectivity, affordable real estate, tax incentives, and away from regions that are prone to natural disasters.

Data centers in the United States are primarily located in Northern Virginia, Dallas, Northern California (Silicon Valley), Phoenix, Chicago, Atlanta, Portland (including Hillsboro, Oregon), New York & New Jersey, Seattle (including Quincy, Washington), and Los Angeles.

Dgtl Infra provides an overview and key facts about data centers in the United States, as well as details on the top 10 data center locations in the US. For each of the largest data center markets in the United States, we highlight its size in multi-tenant commissioned power, main power supply provider(s), average electricity rates per kilowatt-hour (kWh), major connectivity hub, as well as its key retail colocation, wholesale data center, and cloud / hyperscale operators.

Data Centers in the US

Data centers in the US are highly-specialized buildings equipped with power and cooling infrastructure that house computer servers and network equipment. Common questions about data centers in the US are as follows:

Where are Data Centers in the United States?

The primary data center markets in the United States are located in Northern Virginia, Dallas, Northern California (Silicon Valley), Phoenix, Chicago, Atlanta, Portland (including Hillsboro, Oregon), New York & New Jersey, Seattle (including Quincy, Washington), and Los Angeles.

The secondary data center markets in the United States are located in cities including Austin, Boston, Charlotte, Columbus, Denver, Houston, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Miami, Minneapolis, Salt Lake City, and San Antonio.

How Many Data Centers are in the United States?

In the United States, there are over 2,500 data centers. Of this total, ~50% are located in the primary data center markets like Northern Virginia, Dallas, and Northern California (Silicon Valley), while the remaining ~50% are scattered throughout many smaller secondary data center markets like Denver, Minneapolis, and Salt Lake City.

Who Owns the Most Data Centers in the United States?

Digital Realty owns the most data centers in the United States with 132 facilities, comprising 1,226 megawatts of white space IT load across 23.4 million net rentable square feet. While Equinix operates the second most data centers in the United States with 75 facilities, however, only ~60% of these data centers are owned, with remaining ~40% being leased.

What is the Largest Data Center in the United States?

The largest data center in the United States is owned by Meta Platforms (Facebook), spanning a total of 4.6 million square feet, which is located in Prineville, Oregon, a city situated ~150 miles southeast of Portland.

READ MORE: Facebook’s 18 Data Centers – $20bn Investment, 40m Square Feet

In 2010, Meta Platforms (Facebook) broke ground on its Prineville, Oregon data center campus at 735 S.W. Connect Way, with its initial buildings coming on-line in 2011. Cumulatively, the company is building 11 data centers at this campus as part of a more than $2 billion investment, which will span a total of 4.6 million square feet.

United States Data Centers – Top 10 Locations

The top 10 data center locations in the United States are Northern Virginia, Dallas, Northern California (Silicon Valley), Phoenix, Chicago, Atlanta, Portland (including Hillsboro, Oregon), New York & New Jersey, Seattle (including Quincy, Washington), and Los Angeles. Collectively, these 10 markets comprise 1,175 data centers with 6,550 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power:

#LocationData CentersMegawatts
1Northern Virginia2752,600
2Dallas150650
3Northern California (Silicon Valley)160625
4Phoenix90600
5Chicago105550
6Atlanta75375
7Portland (including Hillsboro)40355
8New York & New Jersey140295
9Seattle (including Quincy)75290
10Los Angeles65210
Total1,1756,550

1) Northern Virginia Data Centers

Northern Virginia is the largest data center market in the United States and comprises several counties located 20 to 40 miles west of Washington, D.C., the nation’s capital. Specifically, Northern Virginia includes Loudoun County (Ashburn, Sterling, Leesburg, Arcola), Prince William County (Manassas, Gainesville, Haymarket), and Fairfax County (Reston, Herndon, Chantilly, Vienna, McLean, Tysons), amongst others. Key characteristics of Northern Virginia’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 275 data centers and more than 2,600 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Dominion Energy is the largest electric utility serving Northern Virginia and NOVEC (Northern Virginia Electric Cooperative) is another important provider
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.06 to $0.07 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 21715 Filigree Court in Ashburn, Virginia, which is operated by Equinix as its DC2 data center
Key Data Center Operators in Northern Virginia
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, CoreSite, Cyxtera, DataBank
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, CyrusOne, CloudHQ, NTT Global Data Centers
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, Meta Platforms (Facebook)

READ MORE: Virginia Data Centers – Ashburn, Loudoun, and Beyond

2) Dallas Data Centers

Dallas, Texas and its neighboring suburbs, including Allen, Carrollton, Fort Worth, Frisco, Garland, Irving, Lewisville, Plano, and Richardson, comprise the second-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Dallas’ data centers are:

  • Size: over 150 data centers and more than 650 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: ERCOT (Electric Reliability Council of Texas) operates an independent power grid which represents ~90% of the electricity consumption in the state of Texas
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.04 to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: Infomart at 1950 North Stemmons Freeway in downtown Dallas, which is operated by Equinix as its DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA6 data centers
Key Data Center Operators in Dallas
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, DataBank, Flexential, Cyxtera
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, CyrusOne, QTS Data Centers, STACK Infrastructure
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: IBM Cloud, Google Cloud, Meta Platforms (Facebook), Amazon Web Services (AWS)

READ MORE: Dallas Data Centers – Everything is Bigger in Texas

3) Northern California (Silicon Valley) Data Centers

Northern California, also known as Silicon Valley, which comprises the cities of Santa Clara, San Jose, Sunnyvale, Palo Alto, Milpitas, San Francisco, and Sacramento, is the third-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Northern California’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 160 data centers with more than 625 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) and Silicon Valley Power (SVP) are the main power providers
  • Electricity Rates: Santa Clara average of ~$0.10 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) and Silicon Valley (excluding Santa Clara) averages between $0.12 to $0.15 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 5, 7, 9, and 11 Great Oaks Boulevard in South San Jose, which is operated by Equinix as its SV1, SV5, SV10, and SV11 data centers
Key Data Center Operators in Northern California (Silicon Valley)
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, CoreSite, Cyxtera, Cologix
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, Vantage Data Centers, STACK Infrastructure, NTT Global Data Centers
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Alibaba Cloud, Oracle Cloud

READ MORE: Northern California Data Centers – Silicon Valley

4) Phoenix Data Centers

Phoenix, Arizona and its metro area, including Chandler, Mesa, Tempe, Scottsdale, and Goodyear, comprise the fourth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Phoenix’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 90 data centers with more than 600 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Arizona Public Service (APS) is the largest electric utility in Arizona and Salt River Project (SRP) is a public electric utility serving the Phoenix metro area
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.055 to $0.07 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 120 East Van Buren Street in downtown Phoenix, which is operated by Digital Realty
Key Data Center Operators in Phoenix
  • Retail Colocation: Digital Realty*, phoenixNAP, Cyxtera, Flexential
  • Wholesale Data Center: CyrusOne, Iron Mountain, Aligned Data Centers, Compass Datacenters
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud, Meta Platforms (Facebook), Apple

READ MORE: Phoenix Data Centers – Colocation in the Silicon Desert

*Digital Realty also operates a major wholesale data center in Phoenix.

5) Chicago Data Centers

Chicago, Illinois and its neighboring suburbs, including Elk Grove Village, Franklin Park, and Aurora, comprise the fifth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Chicago’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 105 data centers with more than 550 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) is the largest electric utility in Illinois and the sole electric provider in Chicago
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.06 to $0.07 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 350 East Cermak Road in downtown Chicago, which is operated by Equinix (as its CH1, CH2, CH4 data centers) and Digital Realty
Key Data Center Operators in Chicago
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, CoreSite, Cyxtera, TierPoint
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, CyrusOne, QTS Data Centers, STACK Infrastructure
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Microsoft Azure, Meta Platforms (Facebook), Amazon Web Services (AWS), Apple

READ MORE: Chicago Data Centers – Colocation in the Central U.S.

6) Atlanta Data Centers

Atlanta, Georgia and its neighboring suburbs, including Alpharetta and Lithia Springs, comprise the sixth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Atlanta’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 75 data centers with more than 375 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Georgia Power, a subsidiary of Southern Company, is the largest electric utility in Georgia
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.035 to $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 56 Marietta Street in downtown Atlanta, which is operated by Digital Realty
Key Data Center Operators in Atlanta
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, DataBank, Flexential, Switch
  • Wholesale Data Center: QTS Data Centers, Digital Realty, STACK Infrastructure, Serverfarm
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Microsoft Azure, Google, Twitter, Uber

7) Portland and Hillsboro Data Centers

Portland, Oregon and its western suburb, Hillsboro, comprise the seventh-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Portland’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 40 data centers with more than 355 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Portland General Electric (PGE) and Pacific Power (PacifiCorp) are the main power providers
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.05 to $0.07 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: Pittock Block at 921 Southwest Washington Street in downtown Portland, which is operated by 1547 Critical Systems Realty (CSR)
Key Data Center Operators in Portland
  • Retail Colocation: Digital Realty*, EdgeConneX, H5 Data Centers, Digital Fortress
  • Wholesale Data Center: NTT Global Data Centers, QTS Data Centers, Flexential, STACK Infrastructure
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud, Meta Platforms (Facebook), Apple, Twitter
    • Note: these cloud service providers (CSPs) and large internet companies have located many of their data centers in the central and eastern parts of Oregon. For example, the cities of Prineville and The Dalles, as well as Morrow County and Umatilla County, are all home to hyperscale data centers

*Digital Realty also operates a major wholesale data center campus in Hillsboro, Oregon.

8) New York and New Jersey Data Centers

New York and New Jersey comprise the eighth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of New York and New Jersey’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 140 data centers with more than 295 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G), and Jersey Central Power & Light (FirstEnergy) are the main power providers
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.085 to $0.0975 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: 60 Hudson Street and 111 8th Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, which are both operated by Digital Realty. Also, 755 and 800 Secaucus Road in Secaucus, New Jersey, which is operated by Equinix as its NY2, NY4, NY5, and NY6 data centers
Key Data Center Operators in New York and New Jersey
  • Retail Colocation: Equinix, DataBank, TierPoint, 1547 CSR
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, QTS Data Centers, CyrusOne, Iron Mountain
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: no cloud regions

9) Seattle and Quincy Data Centers

Seattle, Washington and its suburb of Tukwila, as well as the cities of Quincy and East Wenatchee in central Washington, comprise the ninth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Seattle’s data centers are:

  • Size: over 75 data centers with more than 290 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Seattle City Light, Grant County Public Utility District (PUD), and Douglas County Public Utility District (PUD) are the main power providers
  • Electricity Rates: Seattle averages between $0.07 to $0.08 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) and Quincy / East Wenatchee averages between $0.028 to $0.035 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: Westin Building Exchange at 2001 6th Avenue in downtown Seattle, which is operated by Digital Realty
Key Data Center Operators in Seattle
  • Retail Colocation: Digital Realty, Equinix, Cyxtera, Digital Fortress
  • Wholesale Data Center: Sabey Data Centers, Vantage Data Centers, H5 Data Centers, CyrusOne
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Microsoft Azure, Google

10) Los Angeles Data Centers

Los Angeles, California and its neighboring suburbs, including Burbank, El Segundo, and Irvine, comprise the tenth-largest data center market in the United States. Key characteristics of Los Angeles’ data centers are:

  • Size: over 65 data centers with more than 210 megawatts of multi-tenant commissioned power
  • Power Supply: Southern California Edison (SCE) is the primary power provider
  • Electricity Rates: average between $0.10 to $0.14 per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
  • Major Connectivity Hub: One Wilshire at 624 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, which is operated by CoreSite as its LA1 data center
Key Data Center Operators in Los Angeles
  • Retail Colocation: CoreSite, Equinix, Cyxtera, Evoque Data Center Solutions
  • Wholesale Data Center: Digital Realty, Serverfarm, Prime Data Centers
  • Cloud / Hyperscale: Google Cloud
Mary Zhang covers Data Centers for Dgtl Infra, including Equinix (NASDAQ: EQIX), Digital Realty (NYSE: DLR), CyrusOne, CoreSite Realty, QTS Realty, Switch Inc, Iron Mountain (NYSE: IRM), Cyxtera (NASDAQ: CYXT), and many more. Within Data Centers, Mary focuses on the sub-sectors of hyperscale, enterprise / colocation, cloud service providers, and edge computing. Mary has over 5 years of experience in research and writing for Data Centers.

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